嘉慶9年(1804年)，俄國政府任命葛羅普京伯爵(Count Golovkin)為全權大臣，率隊前往北京，欲與清朝政府商議貿易等相關事務。但是清朝政府卻將葛羅普京看成是俄國政府派來向嘉慶皇帝致敬的朝貢使臣。既是專為朝貢而來，當然須遵照大清朝貢禮儀體制─「封貢體制」行事，而大清帝國自開國以來處理對外關係的禮儀體制與西方傳統的外交禮儀體制不同，所以當葛羅普京率隊抵達庫倫時，就因外交禮儀體制觀念上的差異，與清朝政府官員發生爭議，雙方為外交禮儀行事問題爭辯甚久，葛羅普京堅持不願照清朝政府規定行事，清朝政府認為葛羅普京行徑傲慢無禮，最後葛羅普京無法進入北京即被遣回俄國。中俄雙方針對外交禮儀體制爭論焦點，及清朝政府堅持以「封貢體制」規定，要求俄方遵循，且未有絲毫的退讓，最終將葛羅普京遣回俄國。本文擬針對上述問題，以相關檔案史料為依據，加以研析探討。 In the 9th year of JiaQing in Qing Dynasty (1804), Count Golovkin was appointed the minister plenipotentiary by Russian government. He and his mission then headed for Peking to confer with Qing government about trade affairs. Nevertheless, Qing government regarded them as a tribute mission sent by Russian government and asked them to comply with the protocol system of the Qing Empire, namely the “Tributary System”. Upon its establishment, the Empire of the Great Qing had a diplomatic protocol system different from occidental tradition. And therefore, when Golovkin mission arrived at Kulun, a long-lasting dispute over the divergence of the diplomatic protocol system was opened between Golovkin and Qing mandarins. On one hand Golovkin refused to follow the rules set by Qing government, and on the other Qing government deemed him arrogant and rude. China and Russia disputed over diplomatic protocol system, while Qing government insisted on the directives of “Tributary System”, urging Russia’s adherence, without the slightest concession. Golovkin was eventually repatriated back to Russia, failing to get into Peking. This essay intends to survey the above-mentioned subject based on archival materials.
俄羅斯學報, 6, 37-74 Journal of Russian studies Vestnik instituta rossii