「開（ひら）く」「閉じる」是自他兩用動詞，這與語意類似的自他成對動詞「開ける／開（あ）く」「閉める／閉まる」不同。「開く」「閉じる」的他動詞用法比自動詞用法分布廣，但本稿主張自動詞用法並非由他動詞用法衍生而來，而是本來是他動詞但在某種條件之下也做為自動詞使用，而本稿的目的在於釐清這些條件。這些條件如下。 (A)以「テイル」表狀態之意時 (B)文脈具「自然成為～狀態」之意時 (C)在名詞修飾節内成為背景化的事件時 (D)主詞為表身體的部分之名詞時 (E)動作主不詳時 若以他動性來看上述條件，這些條件具有許多他動性低的特徴，為他動性低的文脈。亦即，「開く」「閉じる」本為他動詞，但在他動性低的文脈中亦可當自動詞使用。 Different from the verbs “akeru/aku” and “ simeru-simaru” which have different forms for transitive and intransitive usage, the ergative verb “hiraku” and “toziru” using the same form. The distribution of the transitive usage of “hiraku” and “tozriru” is wider than the intransitive usage of those. It is considered that the intransitive usages are not derived from the transitive one, but that the transitive verb acts as intransitive verb in some conditions. These conditions are as follows: (A) denoting the meaning of a state with “teiru” form (B) having the context meaning “occurred by itself” (C) in the noun-modifying clause which is backgrounding (D)the subject that denotes parts of human (E)the agent that is unclear Those conditions have lots of low transitivity features, so are the contexts. That is to say, “hiraku” and “toziru” are transitive verbs, but they act as intransitive verbs while in the contexts of low transitivity.
政大日本研究,第十一號吉田妙子教授退休紀念論集,51-70 Chengchi journal of Japanese studies