日文中有某些自他動詞具同一形態如「扉を開く」「扉が開く」。本稿依照先前研究稱此類動詞為「自他兩用動詞」，並以和語的自他兩用動詞作為考察對象。先前的研究依動詞的目的語（主語）或是格等將自他兩用動詞類型化，但並未釐清這些自他兩用動詞的自動詞或是他動詞用法何時會出現。 本稿將自他兩用動詞依照他動詞句的ヲ格名詞（＝自動詞句的ガ格名詞）類型化，探討每個類型的自動詞或是他動詞用法在何種句構中出現。本稿釐清了何種類型的自他兩用動詞在何種句構中會出現自動詞或是他動詞用法，藉此可得知日語的動詞自他兩用的現象是由句構及文脈所造成的。 There are verbs used both as transitive verbs and intransitive verbs in Japanese like “tobira wo hiraku(open the door) , “tobira ga hiraku(the door opens)”. These verbs are called “zita ryouyou verbs(ergative verbs), and the aim of this paper is to break these ergative verbs of yamato words down into patterns. These verbs are classified depending on objects (subjects) or cases in previous study, but the conditions of the transitive or intransitive usage are still unclear. In this paper, these ergative verbs are broken down into patterns by the object of transitive usage (that is the subject of intransitive usage), and the conditions of the transitive or intransitive usages are observed. By the considerations of this paper, the conditions of the transitive or intransitive usage are clarified and we can conclude that the ergative verbs of yamato words are dependent on the constructions or contexts.
政大日本研究,第十二號,67-98 Chengchi journal of Japanese studies