在二十世紀外國文學譯入中國的歷史上，傅雷是少數具有「文化轉向」能力的翻譯家，在他一生三十四部譯作裡，咸認為傅譯巴爾扎克作為主業，不過，傅譯伏爾泰一共有《老實人》、《天真漢》、《查第格》三部，比重並不輕，卻長久以來受到文學史研究者的忽略。本文首先考察傅譯巴爾扎克和伏爾泰的動機，雖一樣出於政治環境的考量，選擇伏爾泰和選擇巴爾扎克卻出現大異其趣的發展。翻譯伏爾泰讓傅雷感到畏縮和沒有把握，本文以諷刺小說《老實人》為研究文本，從脈絡性轉換和文化交往的角度，討論傅雷和陳汝衡、徐志摩譯本的比較，從專有名詞切入並擴及文化語境的轉換，試圖瞭解一個最富有西方十八世紀精神的文學作品Candide，難以在中文語境悠遊流播的原因；何以傅雷且譯且作的「老實人」，不能成為（另一個）說中文的阿Q。 The year 2009 sees the 250 anniversary of the publication of Voltaire’s Candide, a satire that has long been appreciated as the most representative novel of the 18th century. Across the continent, not until 1920s did the Chinese writers start to translate this classic. Among five translated versions, Fu Lei’s傅雷 Laoshih Jen老實人 (1954) deserves re-consideration because, in the modern history of Western literature imported into China, Fu Lei’s contribution has remained unquestioned largely due to the widespread influence of his translation of Balzac. However, after a thorough examination of his own evaluation, it is noteworthy that Fu Lei gains least confidence in translating Voltaire. The reason why one of the most credited translators in modern China found it most difficult to introduce Voltaire into the Chinese-speaking world inspires the following discussion. This paper focuses on Laoshih Jen. In order to elaborate Fu Lei’s cultural contextualization, other translated versions by Chen Juheng陳汝衡 (1923-24) and Hsu Chihmo徐志摩 (1927) are compared and contrasted. Fu Lei appears so cautious in translating Candide that he seldom transforms Voltaire’s proper nouns and metaphors. Fu Lei’s conservatism results Laoshih Jen into a work that would fail to transgress such original spirit of an 18th century novel so much alive in Candide. Accordingly, one wouldn’t say that Candide had found a counterpart after it was travelled to China.