甫獲諾貝爾文學奬，卡繆即致信其小學教師路易•傑爾曼先生表達對恩師由衷感激之意，直言他是獲奬時所想到的僅次於母親的人，間接地將此榮耀歸於他的小學老師。傑爾曼先生不僅深刻影響了卡繆，亦成為其未完成小說《第一人》中小學教師人物的原型。不止卡繆，阿爾及利亞殖民時期法語文學中有不少作家都在作品中呈現小學教師此類人物，反應出初等教育在法屬阿爾及利亞作家的生命歷程及創作書寫中所佔有之重要性。本研究由這位卡繆筆下介於真實與虛構的小學教師出發，以卡繆(Albert Camus)、屈斐穆斯(Albert Truphémus)、菲拉翁(Mouloud Feraoun)及迪布(Mohammed Dib)四位不同出身之阿爾及利亞作家的作品為主要分析對象，探討法屬阿爾及利亞作家對小學教師的呈現以及圍繞此人物類型的論述，並進一步藉由作品間的比較分析，探討在阿爾及利亞法語文學中不同作家作品處理小學教師主題之相似與相異處以及其間的意義。這些作品對小學老師的描繪，無論該位教師出身歐裔家庭或是「本土」家庭，大多呈現出共通印象：他全心投入學童的啟發 教育，對教師身份抱有清楚認知與敬業熱誠，在學童甚至與學童家庭之間更經常存在一種近似父子的密切關係。然而，非歐裔教師身為法國教育體制代言人，更必須面對法國殖民政策兩手態度下的內在矛盾——一方面進行教育同化，傳授人權及自由、平等、博愛等法國精神，另一方面又持續對被殖民者實行壓迫與不平等對待。跨作家作品分析也允許我們觀察到，隨著歷史的進程，小學教師人物們的心態、立場以及教學現場現實情況的演變，和處於殖民系統內在矛盾下教師的希望、懷疑和期許。這些面向正是阿爾及利亞法語文學尤其關切的主題。 In the letter he sent to Louis Germain just after being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, Albert Camus pays tribute to his schoolteacher who has had a great influence on him and who is the source of inspiration of the character of schoolteacher in his autobiographical novel The First Man. Camus is not the only writer of Algeria’s French colonial period to show an interest in the schoolteacher figure. Education plays a crucial role in these Francophone writers’ personal life as well as in their carrier, despite their different origins or conditions. This study examines the literary figure of primary school teacher in the Algerian literature of French expression under this specific historical and geopolitical context. Works of Albert Camus, Albert Truphémus, Mouloud Feraoun et Mohammed Dib are analyzed and put into perspective with the aim to study their representations of the figure in question and to extricate the diversity and the similarity that lie within them. Devotion to students’ intellectual emancipation, keen awareness of their role as well as a filial sentiment in the teacher-student relationship are among others shared characteristics of the schoolteacher as a fictional figure, whilst indigenous writers see themselves even more confronted with contradictions within the colonial educative discourse. The comparison between works of four writers indicates not only an evolution in the situation, the mentality and the position of the figure of schoolteacher according to the different historical periods where the texts are set and written, but also the reality, hopes and doubts of the Algerian school community during the colonial period that figure as an important literary theme in the Algerian Francophone literature.