對中國而言之基督教問題，足以威脅其自身政治體制正當性與存續之國內問題，同時也攸關對外關係，中國與梵蒂岡之關係即為很好的例證。從與梵蒂岡之關係，可一窺中國「作為社會主義國家其脆弱性」。冷戰後，中國共產黨堅持黨獨裁體制，高度警戒反共的梵諦岡顛覆其自身之體制。所謂「作為社會主義國家其脆弱性」，乃為中國於冷戰後之國際社會堅持社會主義體制，於國內外承受政治上的「雙重壓力」，此成為中國戰略安全上重大的安全威脅。冷戰後並未與梵蒂岡締結外交關係之中國，於現代的國際社會上，可謂是少數。再者，中國之基督教問題，其影響也可能及於中美權力轉移。 China’s relations with Vatican not only illustrate the fact that China faced the problems of Christianity both internally and externally, but also reveal China’s ‘vulnerability as a Socialist State’ in today’s international society. China’s ‘vulnerability as a Socialist State’ designates that the Socialist China is exposed to double political pressure from both inside and outside the country in the Post-Cold War era. Thus, the decision-makers of the Chinese government are regarding the religious problems situation as asecurity threat. China has been highly cautious in the fear of that theanti-Communist Vatican may attempt to subvert its political regime. Despite the fact that the major countries in the world today form an official relation with Vatican, China does not establish full diplomatic ties with the small eststate in the world. It can be said that China, still hesitating to normalize diplomatic relations with Vatican, is an alien state in the Post-Cold Warinter national society. China’s relations with Vatican are also closely related to the Taiwan Strait issue. In addition, the religious problems that China now faced can affect the process of power transition between China and the United States in the future.