City transformation is a long process and is much more complicated than a private company’s organizational change. By studying the four UNESCO Creative Cities described in Chap. 3, we summarize that city transformation requires vision, good leadership, multiple players’ commitment, tangible resources, effective execution, and a self-organizing system. Generally, it goes through two stages—the initial triggering stage (LERP) and the second self-organizing stage (PEARL). “LERP”—leader, execution, resources, and partners are the crucial elements in the initial triggering stage. “PEARL”—stands for enlarged partners, execution, activation, resources, and leadership of multiple constituents that are required at the second self-organizing stage for making a creative city sustainable.
The Impact of Societal and Social Innovation pp 51-62