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    題名: 論雅美語動詞詞綴的功能
    Functions of Yami Verbal Affixes
    作者: 黃婉婷
    Huang, Wan Tin
    貢獻者: 張郇慧
    Chang, Hsun Huei
    黃婉婷
    Huang, Wan Tin
    關鍵詞: 雅美語
    達悟語
    動詞詞綴
    多功能
    功能
    語態系統
    焦點系統
    潜在情態
    結果語態
    致使
    受事者語態
    終結點
    Yami
    Tao
    Verbal affixation
    Function
    Voice
    Focus
    Subject-verb agreement
    Potentive mood
    Potentive ma-
    Resultative ma-
    Stative ma-
    Multi-functional
    Patient voice affix
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-09-13 14:04:34 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 許多文獻不斷的在探討南島語言動詞詞綴的變化與句子主語的關係,動詞詞綴與主語之間的關係早期被稱為焦點系統(focus system),後來被修正為語態系統(voice system)。但南島語的語態系統與英文的主動/被動語態相似卻不雷同,南島語有主事者語態(actor voice)、受事者語態(patient voice)、地點語態(locative voice)、受惠者語態(beneficiary voice)、工具語態(instrumental voice)等等。除此之外,動詞詞綴與主語的論旨角色之間的對應並不像英文主語/被動語態般有規律,且可被預測。因此,有看法認為動詞詞綴的主要功能是增加或減少句子的及物性(transitivity analysis)。雅美語是屬於南島語系的台灣原住民語言,擁有豐富的動詞詞綴,本文主要的目的就是探討這些動詞詞綴的功能。這些詞綴包括Ø, m-, mi-, <om>/om-, ma-, man-/mang-, ni-, -en, -an, i-, 以及 ka- -an。本文採用Foley(2005)修訂版的宏觀角色層級(revised macro-role hierarchy)來檢視雅美語主語的語意屬性(semantic property),比較這些詞綴在不同類型的句子裡的表現,我們認為這些詞綴的功能並不僅限於改變句子的及物性或語態,而是同時扮演著好幾個不同功能。動詞詞綴 -an 在雅美語中不只表示地點語態,也標示受事者語態,與 -en 有類似的功能。研究發現,至少有三組詞根/詞幹(root/stem)與 -an 跟 -en 有不同的互動。其中一組詞根/詞幹只能被 -an 附加,另一組只能被 -en 附加,第三組則可以被 -an 或 -en 附加。這項發現顯示詞根/詞幹的詞彙語義會影響動詞詞綴的附加選項。本文同時探討了動詞詞綴 ma- 的四項功能,包含主事者語態(activity)、狀態語態(stative)、濳在情態(potentive)跟結果語態(resultative),這四種功能包含了語態(voice)、情態(mood)、終結點(telicity)。由此,本研究認為雅美語的動詞詞綴不只擁有表語態或及物性的功能,而是多功能的詞綴。
    Austronesian languages have exhibited a unique subject-verb relation that has been extensively studied beginning from last century. This relation has been referred to as focus and later on the term voice has replaced it due to its pragmatic usage. Austronesian focus or voice refers to verbal affixation that signals the thematic role of the clause subject. However, this subject-verb relation is not as regular and predictable as the Englsih active-passive voice system. Hence, an alternative view has proposed that the function of these verbal affixes is to transitivize/intransitivize clauses—transitivity analysis. The present study proposes that the function or functions of these verbal affixes should not be limited to signal the thematic role of a clause or to transitivize/intransitivize clauses, and suggests that the verbal affixes in Yami are multi-functional. This proposal is further supported by the affixes ma- and -an in Yami. Semantic properties of subject participants of clauses containing Yami verbal affixes including Ø, m-, mi-, <om>/om-, ma-, man-/mang-, ni-, -en, -an, i-, and ka- -an are examined via the modified version of Foley’s (2005) revised macro-role hierarchy. Based on the semantic property of a clause subject, it is attested that the affix -an serves a similar function as the affix -en in Yami to construct clauses with an undergoer subject in addition to its original function of constructing clauses with a locative subject. There are at least three different sets of roots/stems that are observed to interact with affixes -an and -en in constructing undergoer subject clauses. One set can only be affixed with -en, one only with -an, and the third one can be affixed with both affixes. This has implied that the lexical property of roots/stems has some influence on the choice of the verbal affixation. The semantic property of -an and -en clause subject has some subtle meaning difference when they are compared via the modified version of Foley’s (2005) revised macro-role hierarchy. The -an clause subject is causally affected and might not undergo change of state while the -en clause subject undergoes change of state.

    Four sub-types of ma- clauses are identified including stative ma-, resultative ma-, potentive ma-, and activity ma-. The set of roots/stems that can only be affixed with the affix -en to construct undergoer subject clauses can be affixed with resultative ma- while the set that can only be affixed with -an cannot. The semantic properties of -an and -en clause subjects differ in affectedness have been further confirmed. The potentive ma- simultaneously serves two functions that include signaling an undergoer subject and potentiality of the event, whereas the affix -an serves two different voice functions—undergoer or locative voice. In addition to the view of multifunctionality of these verbal affixes, it is suggested that the study of the Yami verbal system has to take the lexical property of roots/stems into consideration.
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