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    Title: 臺灣客語「過」構式:結構、語義與語音綜合分析
    Taiwan Hakka go55 constructions: A structural, semantic and phonetic integrated analysis
    Authors: 劉曉蒨
    Liu, Hsiao-chien
    Contributors: 賴惠玲
    曾淑娟

    Lai, Huei-ling
    Tseng, Shu-chuan

    劉曉蒨
    Liu, Hsiao-chien
    Keywords: 趨向詞
    客語「過」構式
    意象模組
    語法化理論
    構式語法
    以構式解析語法化的觀點
    口語產製實驗
    音長
    正規化
    directionals
    Hakka go55 constructions
    image schema
    Grammaticaliztion
    Construction Grammar
    a constructional view of change
    production experiment
    duration
    normalization
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-09-13 14:04:56 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文旨於針對臺灣客語趨向詞「過」構式提供一個具有結構、語義及語音之整合性研究。首先在句法結構層面,本文主要採用Traugott & Trousdale (2013)「以構式解析語法化的觀點」(a constructional view of change),從「構式語法」(construction grammar) 的觀點重新思考語法化 (grammaticalization) 研究的演變。為了強化構式語法的「認知概念」面向,本文將Langacker (1987)的意象模組 (image schema) 概念整合至構式分析,具體呈現認知層面與語義層面的互動關係。最後,本文操弄口語產製實驗 (production experiment),以探索語法化、結構語義及語音的弱化關係。本文希望提出一個研究趨向詞與語法化的整合框架,作為日後其他趨向詞對比研究的基礎,並能使理論發展與語言解釋能有更實質的連結。

    過去語法化研究主要以詞彙單位為研究對象,而且通常分成句法演變和語義延伸的各別專研,導致容易偏重特定面向。因此本文以典型的結構為主,如[NP1+(V)+過+NP2],在此稱為構式,如此可以考慮這個構式裡每個成分的變化與互動,用以掌握形式及意義的演變(或共變)。

    為了釐清「過」構式與分佈,本文首先製作一個專門性的小型口語語料庫,其中收集到738筆帶「過」的趨向構式,語料標記的項目著重於組成成分的詞彙、句法與語義面。雖然真實使用情況容許諸多形式變化,但本文僅聚焦於典型構式與經歷語法化的構式。經過由下到上的標記程序,語料庫的結果顯示「過」構式主要涵蓋三種上層構式(主要構式),即A類[NP1+V過+NP2]、B類[NP1+V+過(+D去/來)+NP2+D去/來]與C類[NP+過+VP],A類與B類涵括動詞與補語「過」的所有構式,因此兩者句法結構變化類型最多且出現頻率高。而C類則是放置形容程度的構式,故出現頻率較低。

    在瞭解「過」構式的樣貌後,本文係從概念、語義與句法等三個層面探討其對應關係。就目前為止,本文認為趨向結構適合構式語法的分析,但就本文的研究結果來說,構式義不全然與動詞義無關,而是動詞是建構構式的一部分,此動詞的概念語義與其他成分(特別是動詞後面的NP2)的互動結果影響著構式義的形成,因此先行操作意象模組的認知概念,形塑「過」構式在認知概念的內在意涵,然後將此認知概念產物與構式合併觀察論元結構在語義及句法的連結與體現關係。在兼顧這三個語言層面後,加以探討每個新構式的產生與構式內部的變化,用以呼應、討論並精進前人研究。據此研究結果,本文歸納出「過」的構式家族,再處理概念與語義的銜接以展現動詞義的區辨,以及構式義與動詞義的互動表現,並且在語義與句法的銜接的框架下討論構式之間的變化。

    最後探討語音弱化與語法化的關係,以嘗試探索對語法化理論的檢驗方法,如何能補充「過」構式在語音上的表現。依照語法化理論的假設,結構語義及功能趨於強化、結構趨於固化,則語音形式便趨於弱化。因此本文以客語「過」構式為主,並以華語「過」構式為輔,利用口語產製實驗檢視構式語義及語音的對應問題。為了讓音長作為可信的量化指標,本文對原始音長進行正規化處理。實驗結果顯示,「過」的動詞、補語與動貌標記用法呈現由長到短的音長差異,而且構式中的能性補語通常得到較弱的語音表現。在語義層面,與具體空間位移用法相比之下,發現抽象空間延伸用法的語音表現較為減弱。

    綜上所述,本文以客語「過」在語料庫之真實使用,探究整體「過」構式語法化,就結構、語義及語音三個範疇表現提出綜合之觀點及分析。
    This dissertation aims at providing a structural, semantic and phonetic integrated analysis for Taiwan Hakka go55 constructions. First, we adopt Traugott & Trousdale's (2013) framework, “a constructional view of change”, which reconsiders some aspects of prior works on grammaticalization from a constructional perspective. Then, we integrate Langacker's (1987) "image schema" into our constructional analysis in the hope of linking the mapping between the cognitive and semantic aspects. Lastly, we conduct a production experiment to investigate the relation between grammaticalization and phonetic reduction.

    Much work on grammaticalization has paid attention to a morphemic or word unit in which structural and meaning changes are sometimes treated independently. We, however, investigate Hakka go55 structure [NP1+(V)+過+NP2], regarded it as a construction, and then examine the variations and interaction within a construction for capturing form and meaning changes.

    We first design a mini-corpus that collects 738 oral tokens of go55 constructions for understanding its usages and distribution. In this corpus, we identify and label the lexicons, structures and semantics of the elements of the constructions. Our targets are typical constructions and the grammaticalized ones although there are many syntactic variations in natural speech. Through the bottom-up labeling process, the result shows that there are three macro-constructions: Type A [NP1+V過+NP2], Type B [NP1+V+DC過(+D去/來)+NP2+D去/來] and Type C [NP+過+VP]. Type A and B contain all verbal and complement directional constructions, so they present many syntactic patterns in high frequency while Type C is the degree construction in low frequency.

    We further investigate the corresponding relationships among cognitive concepts, semantics and syntax. The results show that the constructional meaning is not completely independent of the verbal meaning since the verb is part of the construction. Moreover, the interaction between the other components (particularly the nouns after the verbs) affects the formation of the constructional meaning. Therefore, the cognitive concepts of image schema are first examined to understand the cognitive nature of go55 constructions and are merged into the constructional analysis based on the relation between semantic and syntax. After taking three aspects into account, we explore the emergence of constructionalization and constructional change. Then, all subconstructions form a family, organized in an inheritance hierarchy.

    In order to examine the relation between phonetic reduction and grammaticalization, finally, a production experiment is implemented to reflect the phonetic representation of go55 constructions. Hakka go55 constructions are the major targets while Mandarin ones are the supplement roles. The duration of the original data is normalized for obtaining a reliable phonetic feature signifying phonetic reduction. The results suggest that the aspectal use is prosodically less prominent than their verbal use. Potentiality forms are often reduced than the other components. Compared to the concrete-motion meaning, the abstract one is majorly reduced.

    Overall, this dissertation provides a comprehensive analysis and overview of structures, semantics and phonetics in Hakka go55 constructions.
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