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    題名: 論「直擊」: 當代媒介生態中的新聞攝影
    On camera-witnessing : Photojournalism in contemporary media ecology
    作者: 區國強
    Au, Kwok-Keung
    貢獻者: 陳百齡
    黃厚銘

    區國強
    Au, Kwok-Keung
    關鍵詞: 新聞攝影
    直擊
    再中介
    媒介生態學
    機緣
    網路即時新聞
    社群媒體
    Photojournalism
    Camera-witnessing
    Remediation
    Media ecology
    Affordance
    Online news
    Social media
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-09-13 14:05:35 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 新聞攝影為何要「拍得到、靠得近」?我該如理解自己從事多年的「新聞攝影」之過去、現在,與未來?在當代攝影越來越無所不能、無所不在、無時不在,和人人都可以/可能是攝影者的情境中,新聞、攝影,與媒介技術之間的關係又為何?這些是本研究想回答的問題。為了回答這些問題,本研究以影像「總被拿來用」為前提,結合機緣、媒介生態學、再中介,和新聞見證等概念建立分析架構,把攝錄媒介視為存活於媒介生態中,並總和其他媒介發生關係的「物種」,藉以探討當代「直擊」現象,試圖釐清「新聞攝影」現況。本研究資料包括研究者個人工作經驗、新聞實務工作者訪談,和網路新聞資料。藉由這些觀察與分析,本文指出當代「直擊」展現了傳統新聞攝影「有(影像)」的邏輯與新媒介技術的結合,亦反映出「媒介」與「媒體」之間的密切關係。從新聞攝影角度來看,「拍得到、靠得近」在當代不再困難,但也呈現出影像見證的「眼見為憑」並非攝錄技術所單獨完成,而總和其他媒介發生關係。以攝錄媒介「物種」的狀態來看,當代新聞影像變多、變快、變粗糙,但也變「短命」;民生百態成為「直擊」重要內容;「拍得到、靠得近」同時為了被「看透」和「看見」;攝錄媒介更被強調用來突襲新聞使用者感官,推動新聞變化。本文提出,當前新聞影像傳播環境展現了現代性與後現代混雜的狀況,衝擊著大眾媒體與新聞攝影「專業者」的地位和生存,包括他們無法再壟斷新聞影像的見證、建證,與論證,以及對一些受訪者來說,當代「直擊」和新聞攝影都出現了「貶值」。本文認為,大眾媒體該保留「大眾」的角色和功能,而攝影記者們則必須開發更多「拍得到、靠得近」與「決定性瞬間」能力,才能存活下來,免於被邊緣化、淘汰,或「絕種」。
    What does it mean to say that “if your pictures aren't good enough, you're not close enough”? Why must photojournalist “get close to shoot ‘good’ pictures”? How should I explain and theorize the past, the present, and the future of the “photojournalism” that I have been practicing for many years? And what is the relationship among journalism, photography, and media technology in the contemporary world where technology of photography becomes more and more powerful, the practices of photography become ubiquitous, and everyone can/may be a photographer? These are the questions this research aims to answer. To answer these questions, this research considers photography as something “put to use”, and combines concepts such as affordance, media ecology, remediation, and journalistic witnessing to form a theoretical framework, analyzing camera-witnessing practices of the news media in contemporary Taiwan. This theoretical framework also regards photography as a “species” living inside the media ecology, and always having relations with or remediated by other mediums. The data of this research includes my own working experiences, interviews of media professionals, and online news of two major news organizations in Taiwan. The thesis states that the practices of camera-witnessing reflect the relationship between new media technology and traditional photojournalistic logic that emphasizes getting close to shoot, having to get the picture, and using of photography for evidential purpose as the goal of photojournalism. Also, in the present stage of journalism, “getting close to shoot” is not a difficult task to accomplish as in the past. But I further argue that, camera-witnessing and “to see is to believe” is not only done by photography, but also by the function of other mediums. Besides, in considering photography as a “species” in the media ecology, I have found the evolution of the photographic medium: speed and quantity are highly emphasized; the news images become “short-lived”; “raw” style emerges as a characteristic of the witnessing images; “ordinary life” becomes an important type of the news content. On the one hand, the purpose of “getting close to shoot” is to attain transparent immediacy. On the other hand, the image is presented to be the object immediately experienced by the audiences, in order to trigger the on-going changes of online news content. Furthermore, contemporary media ecology in Taiwan shows an ambivalent condition in which modernity and postmodernity co-exist. For the photojournalists and media professionals, they are at the risk of losing their social and professional status, as they no longer monopolize the channel and the technology to produce and to circulate camera-witnessing images. In the viewpoints of some interviewees, camera-witnessing and photojournalism have been “devalued”. I conclude that, to survive in the new environment, mass media organizations should defend their role as “mass media”, and the photojournalists need to develop their new understanding and abilities to “get close to shoot” and to capture “the decisive moment”.
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