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    題名: 中小企業組織變革下策略人才激勵模式探討
    The Strategies of Retaining Talents for Small and Mid-Size Businesses
    作者: 趙春連
    貢獻者: 韓志翔
    趙春連
    關鍵詞: 組織變革
    人才激勵
    績效考核
    獎酬制度
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-09-13 14:26:54 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 組織變革是企業永續經營必經之路,組織必須隨著時代與環境的變化而改變。企業是由人所結合而成的組織,人員的良莠程度也直接影響企業的產出效能。其中除了人員自身的本質學能外,其面對工作時的態度也會是非常關鍵的因素之一,在企業選才時也是列為重點考量,常常呈現對態度(如勤勉審慎性)的考量甚至高於工作技能,再次印證企業必須找對的人上車才能讓企業的運作永續經營。
    台灣的產業結構中,為數眾多的中小企業佔全體公司總數的97.73%,成為影響產業成長的重要因素。但是中小企業因為資源(如資金、商譽、能力等等)與大企業比較之下相對缺乏,形成人才競爭下的弱勢群體。如何可以吸引到適當的人才加入,輔以適當的人員培訓,打造企業可用之才,協助企業成長茁壯,成為中小企業十分頭痛的重要課題。
    此外,企業在成長過程中經常面臨各種不同的問題與阻礙,組織也須隨著當時的環境與長期目標而進行變革。在組織變革過程中,運用現有的資源配置與組織架構的調整,同時訂定對員工及組織有利的明確變革計畫,並提供完整的步驟及對策,藉此激勵員工,期能獲取新的機會。中小企業如何在資源制約的情形下,突破制約來建構企業的人才策略?該人才策略如何因應組織變革而隨之調整,其調整的重點又應該為何?如何透過激勵來強化員工向心力?以上三個問題成為本研究聚焦的重點。
    當環境變化快速又不可預測時,組織要擁有競爭優勢與穩定成長,就必須能夠改善現有產品與創新兼容並蓄,在兩者之間取得動態平衡。所以組織必須一方面運用改善提升來確保現有的能力,另一方面又要發展創新來確保未來的能力。以上兩者必須要擁有創新人才與核心團隊,才能立於不敗之地。
    研究發現,在資源制約下中小企業人才策略的建構與執行更加不易,各個階段的人才策略與激勵方式所側重的議題皆有不同。例如當企業轉型時的人才策略著重於找尋有創新能力的人才,協助企業轉換到新的領域,鼓勵創新活動在組織之中進行;當功能部門擴增時著重找尋獨立作戰且可以制定作業標準的人才,健全組織效能,激勵重點在於強化執行效能;當組織功能性齊備後需要大幅增加業務能量、提昇業績成長時需要尋找可以開疆闢土、帶來持續成長的人才,激勵的重點是鼓勵全員銷售,塑造大力開創氛圍。最終希望透過本研究提供中小企業在制約下進行組織變革時人才策略之參考。
    Business organizations are made of various groups of people. The experience, talents, and attitudes among the people have direct impact to the success of an organization. The knowledge and skills of the staff are important, but the staff’s attitude toward their job is crucial. When selecting the right talents, we should consider their skillsets as well as their attitude and aptitude.
    In Taiwan, most of the manufacturing companies are small to midsize businesses. They are accounted for about 97.73% of the all manufacturing organizations in Taiwan. There are limitations to the organizational growth due to lack of resources for those small to midsize companies. It is difficult to compete with the larger manufacturing enterprises because of this reason. It is critical for the small to midsize manufacturing companies to develop plans for attracting and retaining the key talents to grow the businesses.
    In addition to lack of resources, the small and midsize companies face business challenges constantly. In this study, we point out 3 areas of focus for the small and midsize businesses to address to improve the talent resource issues.
    (1) What kind of talent hiring and retaining strategy should an organization have?
    (2) What kind of the talent hiring and retaining strategy should an organization have during the business transitions?
    (3) What is the incentive for the talents to stay?
    In conclusion, it is extremely difficult to establish and execute the talent hiring and retaining plan for the small and midsize manufacturing companies, because the talent hiring and retaining plan varies depending on the stage of transitions for a company. For example, when a company is transitioning to a different area of expertise, then the talent of creativity is needed to be able to break through the existing limitations. When a company is expanding, then the talent of self-motivation and well-organization is needed to lead the effort of expanding. When a company has reached the planned transition and expansion, then the talent of leadership is needed to continue the growth and plan for future transitions and expansions. Hopefully, the examples given in this study can be a reference for the small and midsize manufacturing companies.
    參考文獻: 一、英文文獻:
    David, P. A. 1985. Clio and the Economics of QWERTY. The American Economic Review, 75(2): 332-337.
    Freeman, J., & Hannan, M. T. 1989. Setting the record straight on organizational ecology: Rebuttal to Young: University of Chicago Press.
    Jones, M. 2004. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Can Lower Recidivism. Corrections Today, 66(4): 18-21.
    Oliver, C. 1997. Sustainable competitive advantage: Combining institutional and resource-based views. Strategic Management Journal: 697-713.

    二、英文書籍:
    Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. 2011. The motivation to work: Transaction publishers.
    Lewin, K. 1951. Field theory in social science.
    McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L. 1976. The achievement motive.
    Selznick, P. 1949. TVA and the Grass Roots.

    三、中文書籍:
    1.丁志達(2003)績效管理: 揚智文化事業股份有限公司.
    2.吳復新(2003)人力資源管理: 理論分析與實務應用: 華泰.
    3.成德禮 譯 (2007)薪酬管理: 中国人民大学出版社.
    4.黃良志(2015)人力資源管理: 基礎與應用: 華泰.
    5.謝昌隆 譯(2008)人力資源管理:台灣培生教育出版股份有限公司,頁359.

    四、網頁:
    1.壹讀-環球華文資訊。中小企業該如何吸引人才,留住人才?(2016/4/11)
    https://read01.com/z2n8xL.html

    2.哈佛商業評論。家族企業的人才困境(2015年4月號)
    https://www.hbrtaiwan.com/article_content_AR0003081.html

    3.台灣就業通。不景氣下的留才面面觀
    https://www.taiwanjobs.gov.tw/internet/jobtraining/docDetail.aspx?uid=611&pid=245&docid=469

    4.產業價值鏈資訊平台
    http://ic.tpex.org.tw/introduce.php?ic=C200

    5.台灣就業通。全球醫療器材產業發展現況與趨勢https://www.taiwanjobs.gov.tw/internet/index/docDetail_frame.aspx?uid=1590&pid=230&docid=30327&nohotkey=Y

    6.工研院IEK醫療器材與健康照護研究部,全球醫療器材產業之 動態與未來發展
    http://www.twse.com.tw/ch/products/publication/download/0001000771.pdf

    7.MD News 生技與醫療器材報導 (2014年8月 第179期)
    https://www.thekono.com/titles/mdnews/magazines/569878c28e6fe
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    經營管理碩士學程(EMBA)
    103932009
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103932009
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[經營管理碩士學程EMBA] 學位論文

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