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    題名: 居住地區劣勢、社會資本與勞動市場表現
    Disadvantage of residential area, social capital and labor market outcomes
    作者: 盧科位
    貢獻者: 熊瑞梅
    盧科位
    關鍵詞: 居住地區劣勢
    社會資本
    勞動市場表現
    Disadvantage of Residential Area
    Social Capital
    Labor Market Outcomes
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-09-13 15:18:48 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文主要探討居住地區劣勢、社會資本與勞動市場表現的問題,主要分成三個部份:臺灣鄉鎮市區劣勢程度的長期變遷,居住地區劣勢、觸及社會資本與勞動市場表現的關係,以及居住地區劣勢、動員社會資本與勞動市場表現的關係,以便瞭解臺灣鄉鎮市區劣勢程度的變遷情形、觸及社會資本與勞動市場表現的關係是否受到居住地區劣勢程度的影響,以及動員社會資本與勞動市場表現的關係是否受到居住地區劣勢程度的影響。
    在臺灣鄉鎮市區劣勢程度的長期變遷方面,本文採用1956-2010年等六年鄉鎮市區人口普查資料來建構地區劣勢指標。在地區劣勢指標項目的選擇上,本文選擇了農業從業人口比例、高中以下教育人口比例,以及人口密度等三項指標,並且透過因素分析的最大變異法構成一個名為「地區劣勢」的因子。除了1956年的農業從業人口比例之因素負荷量為最大之外,其餘年份均以高中以下教育程度人口比例的因素負荷量為最大。這樣因素萃取的結果顯示出臺灣地區劣勢的形成有很大的部份是與人口的教育程度有關。另方面,根據GIS所描繪的地圖,可以清楚的看到發展相對優勢的地區主要是集中在北部地區,並且繼續擴展中,而這些地區主要涵蓋隸屬臺北市、新北市、基隆市、桃園市及新竹市的鄉鎮市區。
    在居住地區劣勢、觸及社會資本與勞動市場表現的關係上,本文主要採用2004年臺灣地區第一波社會資本調查資料來探討的問題為居住地區劣勢、個人背景與觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)和居住地區劣勢、觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)與勞動市場表現兩項問題。在居住地區劣勢、個人背景與觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)方面,本文採階層線性模型來估計之。估計結果顯示,觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)確實有地區不平等的現象,並且與居住地區劣勢有關,因為當僅放入居住地區劣勢時,居住地區劣勢對觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)有顯著的負面影響,即居住地區劣勢程度越高,觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)越不好,並且截距項的顯著性就消失了,顯示觸及社會資本的不平等是與居住地區劣勢程度有關。然而,當放入個人背景時,個人的年齡、教育程度和工作經驗對觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)有顯著的正面影響,並且居住地區劣勢的顯著性消失了。在居住地區劣勢、觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)與勞動市場表現方面,居住地區劣勢和觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)均對薪資有顯著的正面影響,然而居住地區劣勢和觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)的交互作用項對薪資沒有任何的顯著影響,即觸及社會資本(擔任現職時)對薪資的影響,不因居住地區劣勢程度不同而有所差異。
    在居住地區劣勢、觸及社會資本與勞動市場表現的關係上,本文主要採用2004年臺灣地區第一波社會資本調查資料來探討之。按照居住地區劣勢程度,本文將分析樣本分成四份(第一等級、第二等級、第三等級和第四等級),並且發現到居住地區劣勢對觸及社會資本有負面影響,特別是第四等級。另外,本文發現觸及社會資本與動員介紹人、弱聯繫與介紹人資源和動員社會資本與勞動市場表現等關係,均受到居住地區劣勢程度的不同而有差異,可見林南的動員社會資本模型並非一體適用,僅有在特定的鄰里/地區脈絡下,才有成立的可能性。
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    描述: 博士
    國立政治大學
    社會學系
    96254503
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0962545033
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[社會學系] 學位論文

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