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    Title: 觀看戰爭:敘利亞內戰的難民影像分析
    Seeing war : An analysis on the Images of Syrian refugees
    Authors: 莊崇暉
    Chuang, Chung Hui
    Contributors: 柯裕棻
    莊崇暉
    Chuang, Chung Hui
    Keywords: 人道攝影
    難民
    敘利亞內戰
    自拍
    社群媒體
    戰爭攝影
    Humanitarian photography
    Refugee
    Syrian civil War
    Selfie
    Social media
    War photography
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-09-13 16:03:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   敘利亞內戰的難民攝影直指當代戰爭的關鍵問題,也凸顯社群媒體使用者如何直面這些影像及採取後續行動。因此,本研究聚焦難民影像中的人道關懷有何轉變,以及社群使用者觀看戰爭影像時,如何理解戰爭影像中的人道意義,以及與社群他人共同觀看時有何倫理問題。
      以庫爾迪影像為分析始點,指出庫爾迪影像及後文本展現社群人道主義,也隱含不同漠視庫爾迪的視線,包括國際政治的角力、宗教信仰的根本問題,更重要的是主流媒體與社群媒體觀者的旁觀問題。
      再者,從《聖殤》的構圖傳統到現代戰爭影像,人道主義並非持守一套不變的道德倫理。儘管西方人道主義已深植於紀實戰爭影像的視覺論述,但是因指涉對象不同,人道主義的意義也隨之變動。難民影像除了悲憫與哀悼的人道傳統外,還展現出掙扎、焦慮、變動不安等意義,更隨著不同觀者而有所差異。
      本文也藉由分析戰爭中的自拍以討論在社群媒體觀看的倫理問題。難民自拍連結社群他人,也跳脫主流新聞媒體的再現,展現難民的非戲劇性日常。而社群觀者便於使用社群媒體的視覺行動機制,實踐線上人道主義。然而,線上視覺人道行動也可能再次消費戰爭悲劇,與實際人道行動的意義相異。最後,觀者不僅漫遊於社群世界,尋找自我觀看的視角,更在與社群他人的互動中反覆確認、變換觀看的位置,以此理解戰爭事件與自身的關係,再採取線上視覺行動。
    The images of Syrian refugees point out key questions about modern war, also high-light how users on social media see the images and practice visual activism. Therefore, this article aims to analyze what the transformation of humanitarian images is, how to
    understand the humanitarian meaning when users see the images, and what the ethics of seeing is.
    First of all, the image of Alan Kurdi and post-text show the social humanitarianism and connote lines of vision of ignorance and, including the struggle of international political, religion conflict, and the indifferent of mainstream media and social media.
      Second, from Pietas to images of modern war, the meaning of humanitarianism is not always the same. Despite the western humanitarianism being rooted in the visual discourse of documentary war images, the meaning of humanitarianism has also changed with different referents. Besides compassion and mourn, struggle, anxiety, variation and instability are included in the images of refugees.
      Third, this study discusses the ethics of seeing via analyzing selfies in war. Refugees take advantage of selfies to link others on social media and get rid of representation of mainstream media to present the nondramatic everyday life of fleeing. Furthermore,
    spectators on social media take the visual action to practice online humanitarianism, although it may consume the tragedy again.
      Conclusively, seeing is not only wandering in social media world and seeking the angles of self-seeing but confirming and changing the position of seeing among the interaction with others time and again. By seeing, people can understand the relationship between war and self, and then take visual action.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程
    103464007
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103464007
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程] 學位論文

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