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Dual Screening and crisis communication: Exploring Indonesians’ media behaviors during terrorist attacks
Lin, Trisha Tsui-Chuan
Communication mediation model
Twitter content analysis
|Issue Date: ||2018-07-19 17:27:49 (UTC+8)|
Indonesia has a long list of bombing attacks and the latest terrorist attack occurred in Kampung Melayu (KM), Jakarta in May 2017. During terrorist attacks, individuals utilize dual screening, the use of two separate screens for videos and social media simultaneously (Lin & Chiang, 2017), for obtaining, producing, and disseminating information, increasing the public’s role in crisis communication. A growing body of literature has explored dual screening, but little scholarly research has investigated dual screening use for crisis communication; thus, this study attempts to investigate the dual screening use during terrorist attacks in Indonesia.
This mix-method research proposes three research questions: (RQ1) What patterns of terrorism-related social media communication were shown during the KM bombing terrorist attack based on the Twitter content analysis? (RQ2) During different stages of the crisis response process, what kinds of media behaviors did Indonesian dual-screeners from various groups perform during the terrorist attack? (RQ3) What motivated Indonesian dual screeners from various groups to use this new mode of crisis communication during terrorist attacks? To answer RQ1, this study analyzed the content of 7,101 tweets during peak days of the KM terrorist attack and coded it using the framework from Haverin and Zach (2010) (i.e., action-related, emotion-related, information-related contents). In response to RQ2 and RQ3, this study recruited 21 Indonesian dual screeners from various groups (incident-related actors, digital participants, and local journalists) for in-depth interviews. The semi-structured interviews asked about respondents’ media behaviors during stages (i.e., observation, interpretation, choice, dissemination) of crisis responses and their motivations (i.e., social, cognitive, affective motives) to use dual screening during terrorist attacks.
Twitter content analysis showed that the tweets during peak days of the KM bombing dominantly promoted action-related messages, such as to unite in combating terrorism, to stop posting or sharing pictures or videos of victims, and so on, confirming the role of social media to mobilize people during crisis. Moreover, the Twitter users also posted emotional content, for instance emotional venting, offering prayer, expressing sympathy, and expressing solidarity. It is also noteworthy that most Twitter mobilizers were government institutions and security, reflecting their effort to draw public’s attention on crisis situations. These mobilizers mostly tweeted action-related and information-related content. The identification of Twitter mobilizers also helped identify digital participants for the in-depth interviews.
The results of in-depth interviews suggested interviewees used multiple platforms (e.g., social networking sites, mainstream media, and mobile instant messengers) in different stages of crisis response process. They sought KM bombing information mostly through TV contents with the complementary of many other channels (e.g., online news portals, YouTube video, social media). Interestingly, for the communication purposes, incident-related actors were more comfortable to use mobile instant messengers (e.g. WhatsApp) to personally chat with their close friends or family members to inform them of their conditions. Journalists engaged more in group chats with their colleagues on mobile instant messengers (e.g., WhatsApp) for information exchange, while the digital participants were also vocal on open platforms, such as Twitter, allowing them to share the general information regarding the incident and accompanying photos and videos. Furthermore, the findings indicate social motives (e.g., social capital, social presence, sociability) and cognitive motives (e.g., information seeking, information appraisal, information sharing) as motivators to engage in dual screening at the time of crises. Another notable finding was the participants, particularly the digital participants, used dual screening to achieve social change, for instance asking others to stop circulating the photos of victims, not to be afraid, and so on. However, the dual screeners also utilized dual screen for emotional coping purposes, such as for venting emotions and for conveying or receiving emotional support.
As for contributions, the findings provide valuable insights in applying Communication Mediation Model (CMM) to the context of dual screening in crisis communication research by understanding the effects of crisis information consumption and social media discussions on people’s crisis response-related behaviors. This research also extends the application of Crisis Response Communication Model (CRCM) by explaining dual screening use during the crisis process of terrorist attacks. Practically, the study offers beneficial insights for the government and other authorities in regard to crisis management, particularly on designing strategies to produce crisis information and effectively disseminate it on suitable media platforms during terrorist attacks or the like.
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|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1054610191|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[國際傳播英語碩士學程] 學位論文|
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