Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Understanding Drama Binge-watching: A Qualitative Study of Millennial OTTTV Users in USA and Taiwan
Lin, Trisha Tsui-Chuan
|Keywords: ||Binge-watching behaviors|
Media system dependency theory
Uses and gratifications theory
|Issue Date: ||2018-10-01 12:13:58 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||Binge-watching has become the prevailing mode of video consumption in digital savvy countries. This study defines binge-watching as the video viewing behavior with excessive or intensive consumption of audiovisual content within a short period of time. Although some studies investigated the motivations and outcomes of binge-watching TV series in western countries and among a few Asian nations, none have examined users’ consumption of specific content genres (dramas) on selected video platforms and services (Over-the-Top TV; OTT TV). There is an absence of research in binge-watchers’ psychological status during viewing and their behaviors (e.g., context and patterns) as well as cross-cultural comparisons among different countries. This study focused on examining drama binge-watching users on OTT TV and comparing Taiwanese and American audiences’ binge-watching processes.
This study investigated the holistic process of drama binge-watching on OTT TV from user motivations, viewing psychological status, and behavioral patterns to outcomes. It also compared millennial users in the United States and Taiwan in order to identify cultural influences on such binge-watching. This study builds the theoretic foundation by integrating Uses and Gratifications Theory (U&G; motivation), Flow Theory (viewing psychological status) and Media System Dependency Theory (MSDT; users’ dependency relationship, behaviors, outcomes and cultural influences). This qualitative study conducted in-depth interviews with American and Taiwanese OTT TV drama binge-watchers who were aged 22-30 years old. Through a purposive sampling method with a snowball sampling, this study recruited 21 OTT TV users (11 Taiwanese and 10 American participants). The transcribed interview data was coded thematically.
Based on the interview data, the most salient motivations for Taiwanese and American participants to binge-watch were entertainment and passing time and reducing boredom, answering RQ1. In regards to the psychological status of young OTT TV users’ (RQ2), intense concentration and time distortion were the most prominent while engaging in drama content consumption. For the behavioral patterns (RQ3), most of the participants preferred to binge-watch alone at home mostly during the evening and late night. Netflix was the most used OTT platform accessed through the laptop. Furthermore, the majority of the American participants were heavy users, while most of the Taiwanese participants were light users. Regarding binge-watching outcomes (RQ4), the most striking outcomes were the affective outcomes relaxation, feeling anxiety and/or guilt and mood change. Information as a cognitive outcome and social interaction as a behavioral outcome were the other prominent effects of the binge-watching behavior. Lastly, in cross-cultural comparisons, binge-watching behavior was quite similar between the Taiwanese and American participants. However, there were some slight differences throughout the binge-watching process that were affected by personal choice, lifestyle and content.
There were 3 emerging codes from the collected data: 1) Spatial presence under immersive flow; 2) Parasocial breakup under affective outcomes (had previously not been linked to binge-watching and is associated with grief and loss in regard to TV shows); and 3) Social interaction under behavioral outcomes (the accessibility to discuss with anyone about series). Furthermore, from the data analysis it was evident content played a key role throughout the drama binge-watching process. Interest in the content is essential, hence personal choice in regards to genre and story interests, and lifestyle in regards to time availability, will influence what drama to binge-watch. Specifically, content was essential in the psychological status of the immersive flow segment. If the content is not engaging enough, once the viewer is in the immersive flow segment they will most likely lose focus and multitask or stop watching the drama. Additionally, content has a great impact on the outcomes, especially in regard to the affective outcomes—like relaxation, mood change, and loneliness.
Keywords: binge-watching, OTT TV, motivations, psychological status, binge-watching behaviors, outcomes, Media System Dependency Theory, Flow Theory, Uses and Gratifications Theory
Abbott, A. (2014). The problem of excess. Sociological Theory, 32(1), 1–26.
Allardice, B. (2015). "A totally glorious, exhilarating game": Baseball's Emergence as the
National Pastime. Base Ball, 9, 53.
Allen, B. (2017). Netflix UK viewers are bingeing so hard that they're watching 13-part dramas
in 24 hours. Retrieved from http://www.radiotimes.com/news/tv/2017-10-18/netflix-binge-watching-24-hours/
Asia-Pacific Broadcasting. (2017). OTT driving Taiwan's multi-channel video services.
Retrieved from https://apb-news.com/ott-driving-taiwans-multi-channel-video-services/
Attride-Stirling, J. (2001). Thematic networks: an analytic tool for qualitative research.
Qualitative research, 1(3), 385-405.
Bailey, R.C. and Baillie, A.J. (2013), “The relationship between placebo alcohol and affect:
motives for drinking”, Drug and Alcohol Review, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp. 162-169.
Baker, A. E. (1854). Glossary of Northamptonshire words and phrases, with examples of their
colloquial use, and illustrations from various authors: To which are added the customs of the country (Vol. 2). J. Russell Smith Publisher.
Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (1998). A theory of media power and a theory of media use: Different
stories, questions, and ways of thinking. Mass Communication and Society, 1(1-2), 5-40.
Ball-Rokeach, S. J., & DeFleur, M. L. (1976). A dependency model of mass-media effects.
Communication research, 3(1), 3-21.
Bata, H., Pentina, I., Tarafdar, M., & Pullins, E. B. (2018). Mobile social networking and
salesperson maladaptive dependence behaviors. Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 235-249.
Becker, G., Grossman, M., & Murphy, K. (1991). Rational Addiction and the Effect of Price on
Consumption. The American Economic Review, 81(2), 237-241. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2006861
Becker, G.S. and Murphy, K.M. (1988), “A theory of rational addiction”, Journal of Political
Economy, Vol. 96 No. 4, pp. 675-700.
Berridge, V., Herring, R., & Thom, B. (2009). Second opinions on binge drinking: A confused
concept and its contemporary history. Social History of Medicine, 22(3), 597–607.
Bian, M., & Leung, L. (2014). Linking Loneliness, Shyness, Smartphone Addiction Symptoms,
and Patterns of Smartphone Use to Social Capital. Social Science Computer Review,33(1), 61-79. doi:10.1177/0894439314528779
Black, D. W. (2007). A review of compulsive buying disorder. World Psychiatry, 6(1), 14–18.
Boudali, M., Hamza, M., Bourgou, S., Jouini, L., Charfi, F., & Belhadj, A. (2017). Depression
and anxiety among Tunisian medical students “binge viewers”. European Psychiatry, 41, S675-S676.
Broadband TV News. (2017). Parks ranks Top 10 US OTT subscription services. Retrieved from
Brondi, R., Alem, L., Avveduto, G., Faita, C., Carrozzino, M., Tecchia, F., & Bergamasco, M.
(2015, September). Evaluating the impact of highly immersive technologies and natural interaction on player engagement and flow experience in games. In International Conference on Entertainment Computing (pp. 169-181). Springer, Cham.
CASBAA. (2017). CASBAA Taiwan in View 2017 - OTT driving Taiwan multichannel video.
Retrieved from http://www.casbaa.com/news/casbaa-news/casbaa-taiwan-in-view-2017-ott-driving-taiwan-multichannel-video/
Clarridge, C. (2018). State by state, here are the most binge-watched TV shows of 2017.
Retrieved from https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/state-by-state-heres-the-most-binge-watched-tv-shows-of-2017/
Cohen, J. (2003). Parasocial breakups: Measuring individual differences in responses to
the dissolution of parasocial relationships. Mass Communication and Society, 6,
Cooper, M.L., Frone, M.R., Russell, M. and Mudar, P. (1995), “Drinking to regulate positive and
negative emotions: a motivational model of alcohol use”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 69 No. 5, pp. 990-1005.
Cooper, M.L. (1994), “Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: development and
validation of a four-factor model”, Psychological Assessment, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 117-128.
Cox, W.M., Hosier, S.G., Crossley, S., Kendall, B. and Roberts, K.L. (2006), “Motives for
drinking, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems among British secondary-school and university students”, Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 31 No. 12, pp. 2147-2157.
Crum, C. (2013). Netflix Shares Some Data On Binge Watching. WebProNews. Retrieved from
Deloitte. (2017). Deloitte: 73 Percent of Americans Binge Watch TV; Millennial Binge Watchers
Average Six Episodes and Five Hours per Viewing. Retrieved from https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/deloitte-73-percent-of-americans-binge-watch-tv-millennial-binge-watchers-average-six-episodes-and-five-hours-per-viewing-300427152.html
Deloitte (2015), “Digital Democracy Survey,” 9th ed., [available at http://www2.deloitte.com/
Deloitte. (2016). Digital democracy survey | Deloitte | research project. Retrieved from
DeGroot, J. M., & Leith, A. P. (2015). RIP Kutner: Parasocial grief following the death of a
television character. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 0030222815600450.
Devasagayam, R. (2014, March). Media bingeing: A qualitative study of psychological
influences. In Once Retro Now Novel Again: 2014 Annual Spring Conference Proceedings of the Marketing Management Association (pp. 40-44).
de Feijter, D., Khan, V. J., & van Gisbergen, M. (2016, June). Confessions of a'guilty'couch
potato understanding and using context to optimize binge-watching behavior. In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for TV and Online Video (pp. 59-67). ACM.
Dickinson, K. (2014). Confessions of the millennial binge-viewer: An examination of the TV
show binge-viewing phenomenon. California State University, Fullerton.
Donovan, N. J., Wu, Q., Rentz, D. M., Sperling, R. A., Marshall, G. A., & Glymour, M. M.
(2016). Loneliness, depression and cognitive function in older U.S. adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,32(5), 564-573. doi:10.1002/gps.4495
ETtoday. (2018). ET民調／時代的眼淚 台灣OTT取代電視了嗎？ Retrieved from
Eyal, K., & Cohen, J. (2006). When good Friends say goodbye: A parasocial breakup study.
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(3), 502–523. doi:10.1207/
Faber, R. J., Christenson, G. A., De Zwaan, M., & Mitchell, J. (1995). Two forms of compulsive
consumption: Comorbidity of compulsive buying and binge eating. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 296–304.
Farber, P.D., Khavari, K.A. and Douglass, F.M. (1980), “A factor analytic study of reasons for
drinking: empirical validation of positive and negative reinforcement dimensions”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 48 No. 6, pp. 780-781.
Flayelle, M., Maurage, P., & Billieux, J. (2017). Toward a qualitative understanding of binge-
watching behaviors: A focus group approach. Journal of behavioral addictions, 6(4), 457- 471.
Flood, A. (2015). 'Binge-watch' declared word of the year 2015. Retrieved from
Fontaine, G. (1992). The experience of a sense of presence in intercultural and international
encounters. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 1(4), 482-490.
Frankel, D. (2017). More than 200 OTT services active in the U.S. market, research group says.
Retrieved from https://www.fiercecable.com/cable/more-than-200-ott-services-active-u-s-market-research-group-says
Freeman, D., Startup, H., Dunn, G., Wingham, G., Černis, E., Evans, N., Lister, R., Pugh, K.,
Cordwell, J., Kingdon, D. (2014). Persecutory delusions and psychological well-being. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(7), 1045-1050. doi:10.1007/s00127-013-0803-y
Friedman, W. (2017). Binge-Watching Impacting Live TV Stats. Retrieved from
Fuller, S. (2018). Topic: Binge watching in the U.S. Retrieved from
Gardner, B. (2015). A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and
influencing health-related behaviour. Health Psychology Review,9(3), 277-295. doi:10.1080/17437199.2013.876238
Gilbert, P. (2016). Depression: The evolution of powerlessness. Routledge.
Giuffre, L. (2013). The development of binge watching. Metro Magazine [online], 178, 101-102.
Graves, M. (2015). Chalk one up for the Internet: It has killed Arrested Development. The series'
revival, binge watching and fan/critic antagonism. In KM Barton (Ed.), A state of Arrested Development: Critical essays on the innovative television comedy, 224-236.
Gros, D., Wanner, B., Hackenholt, A., Zawadzki, P., & Knautz, K. (2017). World of Streaming.
Motivation and Gratification on Twitch. Social Computing and Social Media. Human Behavior Lecture Notes in Computer Science,44-57. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-58559-8_5
Harris, M. (2013). Arrested Development and the case against binge-watching. Entertainment
Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.ew.com/article/2013/06/13/binge-watching-arrested-development/
Hawkes, R. (2017). Complex rules, piracy hinder growth of Taiwan's video market. Retrieved
Hills, P., Argyle, M., & Reeves, R. (2000). Individual differences in leisure satisfactions: An
investigation of four theories of leisure motivation. Personality and Individual Differences,28(4), 763-779. doi:10.1016/s0191-8869(99)00137-3
Hooper, V., & Zhou, Y. (2007). Addictive, dependent, compulsive? A study of mobile phone
usage. BLED 2007 Proceedings, 38.
Horsley, T. L., & Wambach, K. (2015). Effect of Nursing Faculty Presence on Students Anxiety,
Self-Confidence, and Clinical Performance during a Clinical Simulation Experience. Clinical Simulation in Nursing,11(1), 4-10. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2014.09.012
Horvath, J. C., Horton, A. J., Lodge, J. M., & Hattie, J. A. (2017). The impact of binge watching
on memory and perceived comprehension. First Monday, 22(9).
Hosier, S. G., & Cox, W. M. (2011). Personality and motivational correlates of alcohol
consumption and alcohol-related problems among excessive drinking university students. Addictive behaviors, 36(1-2), 87-94.
Huang, T. L., & Chen, Y. M. (2014). Young audiences’ emotional experience on smartphone
film: an application of dual-coding theory. Young Consumers, 15(2), 193-208.
Jellinek, E. M. (1952). Phases of alcohol addiction. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol,
Jenner, M. (2017). Binge-watching: Video-on-demand, quality TV and mainstreaming fandom.
International Journal of Cultural Studies, 20(3), 304-320.
Jurgensen, J. (2013, Dec 12). Netflix says binge viewing is no 'house of cards'; half the users it
studied watch an entire season in one week. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1467535987?accountid=10067
Khan, T. J., Sani, A. M., & Shaikh-Abdullah, S. (2016). Exploration of Instrumental and
Integrative Motivation for Reading English as a Second Language among Second Year Pre-University Students of Government MAO College, Lahore (Pakistan). Open Journal of Social Sciences, 04(04), 69-76. doi:10.4236/jss.2016.44010
Karmakar, M., & Kruger, J. S. (2016, March 04). Is binge-watching bad for your mental health?
Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/mar/04/binge-watching-mental-health-effects-research
Kellett, S., & Bolton, J. V. (2009). Compulsive buying: A cognitive–behavioural model. Clinical
Psychology & Psychotherapy, 16(2), 83–99.
Krisberg, K. (2016). Binge-watching bad for mental health. The Nation's Health, 45(10), 35.
Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1757703966?accountid=10067
Kruger, C., Niederdeppe, J., Byrne, S., & Avery, R. J. (2015). Effects of exposure to direct-to-
consumer television advertising for statin drugs on food and exercise guilt. Patient Education and Counseling,98(9), 1150-1155. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2015.05.025
Lafrance, J. P., & Libbrecht, L. (1996). Games and players in the electronic age. Tools for
analysing the use of video games by adults and children. Réseaux. Communication-Technologie-Société, 4(2), 299-331.
Lang, K., Murphy, J.G., Monahan, C.J., Dennhardt, A.A., Skidmore, J.R. and McDevitt-Murphy,
M.E. (2012), “The role of positive consequences of alcohol in the relation between sensation seeking and drinking”, Addiction Research and Theory, Vol. 20 No. 6, pp. 504-510.
Li, L. & Lin, T. T. C. (2016). Exploring work-related smartphone dependency among young
working adults in China: A qualitative approach. International Journal of Communication, 10, 2915-2933.
Li, S.-M., & Chung, T.-M., (2004): Internet function and Internet addictive behaviour,
Computers in human behaviour, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 1067-1071.
Lin, T. T. C., Chiang, Y., Jiang, C. (2015). Sociable people beware? Investigating smartphone
vs. non-smartphone dependency symptoms among young Singaporeans. Social Behavior and Personality, 43(7), 1209-1216.
Lin, T. T. C. & Chiang, Y. (Forthcoming). Investigating predictors of smartphone dependency
symptoms and effects on academic performance, improper phone use and perceived sociability. International Journal of Mobile Communications.
Loose, T., & Acier, D. (2017). Drinking motives and alcohol consumption behaviors among
young French people. Addictive behaviors, 72, 120-125.
Lowrey, W. (2004). Media dependency during a large-scale social disruption: The case of
September 11. Mass Communication & Society, 7(3), 339-357.
Mahmud, M. M., Ramachandiran, C. R., & Ismail, O. (2018). Social Media Dependency: The
Implications of Technological Communication Use Among University Students. In Redesigning Learning for Greater Social Impact (pp. 71-87). Springer, Singapore.
Mai, J. E. (2016). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs,
and behavior. Emerald Group Publishing.
Mathes, W. F., Brownley, K. A., Mo, X., & Bulik, C. M. (2009). The biology of binge eating.
Appetite, 52(3), 545–553.
Matrix, S. (2014). The Netflix effect: Teens, binge watching, and on-demand digital media
trends. Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures, 6(1), 119-138.
McQuail, D. (2010), McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory, Sage Publications, New York,
Memmott, C. (2013). 10 Great TV Series to Binge Watch. Retrieved from
Merikivi, J., Salovaara, A., Mäntymäki, M., & Zhang, L. (2017). On the way to
understanding binge watching behavior: the over-estimated role of involvement. Electronic Markets, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-017-0271-4
Mikos, L. (2016). Digital media platforms and the use of TV content: Binge watching and video-
on-demand in germany. Media and Communication, 4(3) doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17645/mac.v4i3.542
Meyrowitz, J. (1994). The life and death of media friends: New genres of intimacy and
mourning. In R. Cathcart & S. Drucker (Eds), American heroes in a media age
(pp. 62–81). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow theory and research. Handbook of positive
Netflix. (2018). Netflix Declares Binge Watching is the New Normal. Retrieved from
Netflix. (2017). 2017 on Netflix - A Year in Bingeing. Retrieved from
Netflix. (2016). Netflix & Binge: New Binge Scale Reveals TV Series We Devour and Those
We Savor. Retrieved from https://media.netflix.com/en/press-releases/netflix-binge-new-binge-scale-reveals-tv-series-we-devour-and-those-we-savor-1
Netflix. (2013). Netflix Shares Some Data On Binge Watching. Retrieved from
Netflix. (2013). Netflix declares binge watching is the new normal. Retrieved from
Oliver, M. B., & Raney, A. A. (2011). Entertainment as pleasurable and meaningful: Identifying
hedonic and eudaimonic motivations for entertainment consumption. Journal of Communication, 61(5), 984-1004.Oxford University Press. (2014). OUP archives. Retrieved from http://oupacademic.tumblr.com/post/96303724999/archives-bingewatch?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=oupacademic&utm_campaign=tumblr
Oxford Dictionaries (2014), “New Words Added to Oxford Dictionaries.com Today Include
Binge-Watch, Cray, and Vape,” [available at http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/press-releases/new-words-addedoxforddictionaries-com-august-2014/].
——— (2016), “Binge Watching,” [available at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/
Panda, S. & Pandey, S. C. (2017). Binge watching and college students: motivations and
outcomes. Young Consumers, 18(4), 425-438.
Parks Associates. (2017). Parks Associates Announces 2017 Top 10 U.S. Subscription OTT
Video Services. Retrieved from https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/parks-associates-announces-2017-top-10-us-subscription-ott-video-services-300552655.html
Paswan, A.K., Gai, L. and Jeon, S. (2015), “Alcohol and college students: reasons, realization
and intention to quit”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 68 No. 10, pp. 2075-2083, available at: www. pewinternet.org/2011/07/19/college-students-and-technology/
Patel, S. (2015). What is OTT, or Over-the-Top? DIGIDAY. Retrieved from
Pena, L. L. (2015). Breaking binge: Exploring the effects of binge watching on television viewer
reception (Order No. 1593900). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I. (1698104022). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1698104022?accountid=10067
Pittman, M., & Sheehan, K. (2015). Sprinting a media marathon: Uses and gratifications of
binge-watching television through Netflix. First Monday, 20(10).
Raman, M. (2016, Mar 24). 70% of U.S. consumers are binge-watchers. Benzinga Newswires
Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1775436691?accountid=10067
Riddle, K., Peebles, A., Davis, C., Xu, F., & Schroeder, E. (2017). The addictive potential of
television binge watching: comparing intentional and unintentional binges. Psychology Of Popular Media Culture, doi:10.1037/ppm0000167
Rocca, K. A., Martin, M. M., & Dunleavy, K. N. (2010). Siblings motives for talking to each
other. The Journal of Psychology,144(2), 205-219. doi:10.1080/00223980903356099
Rodriguez, A. (2017). The average young American binge-watches TV for five hours straight.
Retrieved from https://qz.com/939530/how-much-tv-are-we-watching-the-average-young-american-binge-watches-netflix-nflx-hulu-and-amazon-prime-amzn-for-five-hours-straight/
Rubenking, B., Bracken, C. C., Sandoval, J., & Rister, A. (2018). Defining new viewing
behaviours: What makes and motivates TV binge-watching?. International Journal of Digital Television, 9(1), 69-85.
Russell, S. (2017). Netflix Knows Exactly How Much We All Watched This Year ... and It's a
Lot. Retrieved from https://www.pastemagazine.com/articles/2017/12/netflix-2017-bingeing-statistics.html
Samek, D. R., Goodman, R. J., Erath, S. A., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2016). Antisocial
peer affiliation and externalizing disorders in the transition from adolescence to young adulthood: Selection versus socialization effects. Developmental psychology, 52(5), 813.
Samuel, M. (2017). Time Wasting and the Contemporary Television-Viewing Experience.
University Of Toronto Quarterly, 86(4), 78-89. doi:10.3138/utq.86.4.78
Sanderson, J., & Cheong, P. H. (2010). Tweeting prayers and communicating grief over
Michael Jackson online. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 30(5), 328–340.
Schweidel, D. A., & Moe, W. W. (2016). Binge watching and advertising. Journal of
Marketing, 80(5), 1-19.
Seitz, P. (2013, Dec 20). Netflix binge viewing leads to comedian purge spewing.Investor's
Business Daily Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1469842435?
SETN. (2017). 過年就是要追劇啊！15個OTT平台 台韓陸美日劇全都有 | 娛樂 | 三立新
聞網 SETN.COM. Retrieved from https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=218196
Shim, H., & Kim, K. J. (2018). An exploration of the motivations for binge-watching and the
role of individual differences. Computers in Human Behavior, (82), 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.032
Sierzchula, J. J., Macgregor, R. M., Onuscheck, D. S., Slyke, J. A., & Tavakoli, H. (2016). Mood
Change in a Patient with a Carcinoid Tumor. Psychiatric Annals, 46(3), 153-156. doi:10.3928/00485713-20160120-01
Statista. (2018). Taiwan Netflix subscribers 2020 | Statistic. Retrieved from
Steiner, E., & Xu, K. (2018). Binge-watching motivates change: Uses and gratifications of
streaming video viewers challenge traditional TV research. Convergence, 1354856517750365.
Stunkard, A. J. (1959). Eating patterns and obesity. Psychiatric Quarterly, 33(2), 284–295.
Sung, Y., Kang, E. and Lee, W., (2015a) "A Bad Habit for Your Health? An Exploration of
Psychological Factors for Binge Watching Behavior." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-02-13 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p986102_index.html
Sung, Y. H., Kang, E. Y., & Lee, W. (2015b). "My name is... and I'm a binge viewer": An
exploratory study of motivations for binge watching behavior. Paper presented at the 169. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1717286852?accountid=10067
Tamborini, R., Bowman, N. D., Eden, A., Grizzard, M., & Organ, A. (2010). Defining Media
Enjoyment as the Satisfaction of Intrinsic Needs. Journal of Communication,60(4), 758-777. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01513.x
TechNews. (2017a). Netflix 揭示台灣觀眾獨特追劇模式，共創全球追劇熱潮. Retrieved
TechNews. (2017b). 台灣 OTT 產業後勢看好 ，線上影音業者熱戰開打. Retrieved from
Thelwall, M. (2017). TensiStrength: Stress and relaxation magnitude detection for social media
texts. Information Processing & Management, 53(1), 106-121. doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2016.06.009
Trouleau, W., Ashkan, A., Ding, W., & Eriksson, B. (2016, August). Just one more: Modeling
binge watching behavior. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (pp. 1215-1224). ACM.
Trudelle, S. (2016). VOD and OTT: Global Trends In Pay TV. Retrieved from https://www.v-
Tryon, C. (2015). TV got better: Netflix’s original programming strategies and the on-demand
television transition. Media Industries Journal, 2(2).
Walton-Pattison, E., Dombrowski, S. U., & Presseau, J. (2018). ‘Just one more episode’:
Frequency and theoretical correlates of television binge watching. Journal of health psychology, 23(1), 17-24.
Wagner, C. N. (2016). "Glued to the Sofa": Exploring Guilt and Television Binge-Watching
Wang, C., Lee, M. K., & Hua, Z. (2015). A theory of social media dependence: Evidence from
microblog users. Decision Support Systems, 69, 40-49.
Wang, Z., & Tchernev, J. M. (2012). The “myth” of media multitasking: Reciprocal dynamics of
media multitasking, personal needs, and gratifications. Journal of Communication, 62(3), 493-513.
Wechsler, H., Davenport, A., Dowdall, G., Moeykens, B., & Castillo, S. (1994). Health and
behavioral consequences of binge drinking in college: A national survey of students at 140 campuses. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(21), 1672–1677.
Weibel, D., & Wissmath, B. (2011). Immersion in Computer Games: The Role of Spatial
Presence and Flow. International Journal of Computer Games Technology,2011, 1-14. doi:10.1155/2011/282345
Weibel, D., Wissmath, B., Habegger, S., Steiner, Y., & Groner, R. (2008). Playing online games
against computer-vs. human-controlled opponents: Effects on presence, flow, and enjoyment. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2274-2291.
Weiss, R. (1994) Learning from Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies.
New York, NY: Free Press.
Wen, Z. (2017). 台灣追劇熱世界冠軍 颱風天在家看驚悚片. Retrieved from
Wheeler, K. S. (2015). The relationships between television viewing behaviors, attachment,
loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being.
Wilson, J. (2018). How OTT Will Innovate In 2018. Retrieved from
Withington, P. (2011). Intoxicants and society in early modern England. The Historical Journal,
World Health Organization. (2010). Dependence syndrome. Retrieved from
Yang, H., & Lee, H. (2018). Exploring user acceptance of streaming media devices: an extended
perspective of flow theory. Information Systems and e-Business Management, 16(1), 1-27.
Young, N. L., Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Howard, C. J. (2017). Passive Facebook use,
Facebook addiction, and associations with escapism: An experimental vignette study. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 24-31. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.039
Zimmer, B. (2013). Keeping a Watch on "Binge-Watching". Retrieved from
Zhou, T. (2013). The effect of flow experience on user adoption of mobile TV. Behaviour &
Information Technology, 32(3), 263-272. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2011.650711
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105461028|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[國際傳播英語碩士學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.