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    政大機構典藏 > 法學院 > 法律學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/122399
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/122399


    Title: 競爭法的數位紀元-論數位平台資訊力對競爭法適用之影響
    The digital epoch of competition law—discussion on the influence of digital platform information power on the application of competition law
    Authors: 邱映曦
    Chiu, Ying-Hsi
    Contributors: 吳秀明
    邱映曦
    Chiu, Ying-Hsi
    Keywords: 數位平台
    網路平台
    大數據
    平台經濟
    雙邊市場
    多邊市場
    資訊力
    資料競爭
    演算法
    人工智慧
    競爭法
    公平交易法
    競爭政策
    隱私保護
    歐盟一般資料保護規則
    Digital platform
    Online platform
    Big data
    Platform economy
    Two-sided market
    Multi-sided market
    Information power
    Data competition
    Algorithm
    Artificial intelligence(AI)
    Competition law
    Fair Trade Act
    Competition policy
    Privacy protection
    GDPR
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-03-04 22:02:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在大數據發展環境下,數位平台基於其資訊匯集地位,以及強大的演算法運用及資料分析能力,壯大與鞏固其在市場競爭的優勢及地位。資訊力伴隨數位平台的市場特性,使得牽涉資料驅動的數位平台競爭個案於競爭法的適用上產生相當的疑問,也引發國際組織及部分國家對於數位平台資訊力引發的競爭法制議題展開探討,藉由個案的累積開始逐步進行法制政策面因應的評估,其中並以歐盟相關案例的發展最為成熟。

    國內公平交易法制對於數位平台資訊力影響之因應,尚未形成具體的法制政策方向,亦尚未對此一議題涉及之問題進行系統化的整理。故本論文試圖以歐盟晚近涉及數位平台資訊力之相關精選案例作為實務探討的核心,佐以蒐整國際法制現下主要的研議方向與內涵,以競爭法限制競爭基本態樣之獨占、結合與聯合行為作為區隔,探討資料驅動之數位平台競爭於不同執法態樣所產生的競爭法適用問題與法制政策因應可能的方向與重點。

    本論文於第一章針對本研究相關背景資訊進行初步介紹後,於第二章針對數位平台的定義及特性進行精簡的說明。第三章開始正式進入資訊力的探討,針對平台資訊力的定義以及其對市場競爭之影響加以分析。第四章則先探討資料驅動之數位平台在市場界定之問題及可採用的方式,再以歐盟對於Google濫用市場支配地位之系列執法為導引,進行執法與法規調適的討論。第五章則以歐盟精選數位平台結合案例為核心,搭配德國限制競爭防止法對數位平台議題的修法及日本、新加坡法制政策面的整理,提出資料驅動數位平台結合於法制規範及執法上應關注之重點。其中並包括隱私/資料保護議題與競爭法執法之關聯及納入審查之必要性的討論。第六章就數位平台運用演算法對市場競爭之影響,及其衍生之勾結行為與執法困境加以探究,搭配德國、日本以及經濟合作暨發展組織(OECD)就相關法制方向的研議,進行法制政策因應方向的探討。
    In the development environment of big data, digital platforms strengthen their competitive advantages and consolidate their market positions on the basis of their roles in information gathering and capability of algorithm implementation and data analysis. The interplay between the market characteristics and information power of digital platforms has caused considerable doubts about the application of competition law to cases relating to data-driven digital platforms. It has also led several international organizations and some countries to discuss and look into competition law issues caused by platform information power. Through the accumulation of cases, the assessments of competition law and policy are gradually carried out by competent authorities of these international organizations and countries, among which cases launched by the European Union (EU) are the most developed at this time.

    The direction and concept of development of legal policy for the competition issues relating to digital platform information power has not specified yet in the domestic fair-trade legal system. Therefore, this thesis attempts to investigate and deliberate the leading competition cases of data-driven digital platforms in the EU during recent years, and simultaneously to explore and analyze the current main developments of international legal policy. These issues are discussed separately regarding the fundamental types of restrictive competition, including monopolistic position, merger and concerted action, in particular to consider the direction and emphasis of the competition law and policy for data-driven digital platforms.

    After introducing the background of the research, this thesis briefly explains the definition and market characteristics of digital platforms in Chapter 2 and discusses the relationship between information power and digital platform competition in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 explores the problem of market definition of data-driven digital platforms and then looks into the EU’s cases against Google’s abuse of market dominance as a basis for a further discussion on law enforcement and regulatory adjustments. Chapter 5 studies the selected EU’s digital platform merger cases, in combination with the legislative development of German competition law and official competition policy researches in Japan and Singapore, to indicate the key points that should be paid attention to in the legal system and law enforcement. It also includes a short discussion about the connection between privacy/data protection issues and competition law enforcement. Chapter 6 examines issues relating to the implementation of algorithms in digital platforms, especially the problem of tacit collusion and the dilemma of law enforcement. It then provides an overview of the relevant legal policy researches in Germany and Japan as well as by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) over the impact of algorithms used by digital platforms. Finally, the overall research is concluded in Chapter 7.
    Reference: 壹、中文資料

    書籍(含外文書之中文譯本)

    Bernasek, Anna / Mongan, D.T.著,吳慕書譯, (2015)。失控的大數據(All You Can Pay-How Companies Use Our Data to Empty Our Wallets)。臺北市:商周出版。
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    Seth Stephens-Davidowitz 著,陳琇玲譯,(2017)。數據、謊言與真相:Google資料分析師用大數據揭露人們的真面目(Everybody lies: big data, new data, and what the internet can tell us about who we really are)。臺北市:商周出版。
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    期刊論文/研討會及論文集/學術演講紀錄/學位論文

    邱映曦,「數位平台市場大數據應用與競爭法—以資料演算法應用之於市場競爭為核心」,科技法律透析,第30卷第5期,頁55~72 (2018)
    邱映曦,「資訊力對於數位平台市場競爭之影響與國際競爭法制趨勢」,銘傳大學追求高教卓越國際學術研討會:法學新知國際學術研討會論文集,頁135~152 (2018)
    邱映曦,電子書出版時代的競爭-蘋果 e-book 聯合行為案初探,科技法律透析,第 26 卷第 7期,頁33~38(2014)
    許曉芬,「歐盟競爭法關於限制競爭協議之研究—以市場界定與市場效果為中心」,公平交易季刊,第25卷第3期,頁1~34 (2017)
    施錦村、馬泰成、單驥、劉姿汝,「競爭法規範有關事業間交換敏感資訊與聯合行為之研究」,公平交易季刊,第26卷第2期,頁55~114 (2018)
    陳志民(主講),「大數據時代下之競爭政策思維與法規範建制」,公平交易通訊第79期,頁1~6 (2018)
    陳志民,「大數據與市場力濫用行為初探」,公平交易季刊,第26卷第3期,頁1~33(2018)
    陳韻珊,「訂價演算法與卡特爾」,公平交易通訊第75期,頁18~20 (2017)
    陳韻珊,「數位時代下的差別待遇行為」,公平交易通訊第78期,頁18~20 (2017)
    張媛筑,「競爭法上使用者數據之應有定位與可能造成之衝擊」,公平交易季刊,第26卷第4期,頁125~164 (2018)
    顏雅倫,「雙邊/多邊市場之競爭與創新-論競爭法的因應」,科技法學評論,13 卷1 期,頁219(2016)
    吳恆安,「競爭法下相關市場界定方法之理論與實務—兼論雙邊市場界定之挑戰」,國立台灣大學經濟學系在職專班碩士論文,2017年02月

    網際網路

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    貳、外文資料

    一、西文資料

    書籍

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    期刊論文及國際組織研究報告

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    網際網路

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    European Commission, Online platform: commission sets new standards on transparency and fairness, press release, 26/04/2018, Retrieved December 24, 2018, from: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/content/online-platforms-commission-sets-new-standards-transparency-and-fairness_en
    European Comission, Commission sets new standards on transparency and fairness for online platform, fact sheet, 26 April 2018, Retrieved December 25,2018 from: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-18-3373_en.htm
    European Commission, Antitrust: Commission fines four consumer electronics manufacturers for fixing online resale prices, press release, 24/07/2018, Retrieved December 19, 2018, from: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-4601_en.htm
    Gurman, Mark , TomTom falls after report apple is building own maps database , Bloomberg, June 30, 2018 , Retrieved August 22, 2018, from: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-06-29/tomtom-falls-after-report-apple-is-building-own-maps-database
    Monopolkommission, Digital change requires legal adjustments regarding price algorithms, the media sector and the supply of medicines, press release at 3 July 2018, Retrieved October 3, 2018, from: http://www.monopolkommission.de/en/press-releases/219-biennial-report-xxii-competition-2018.html
    McSweeny, Terrell, Bigdata: individual rights and smart enforcement, Remarks at the EDPS-BEUC joint conference on 29 September 2016, Retrieved October 3, 2018, from: https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/public_statements/987103/mcsweeny_-_euro_data_protection_conf_9-29-16.pdf
    Palmer, Annie, WhatsApp co-founder admits to selling users’ privacy after sale to Facebook, Business Report, Retrieved October 19, 2018, from: https://www.iol.co.za/business-report/international/whatsapp-co-founder-admits-to-selling-users-privacy-after-sale-to-facebook-17244556
    Statt, Nick, WhatsApp co-founder Jan Koum is leaving Facebook after clashing over data privacy-The messaging app’s CEO pushed back against Facebook’s approach to user data, advertising, and encryption, April 30,2018, Retrieved July 19, 2018, from: https://www.theverge.com/2018/4/30/17304792/whatsapp-jan-koum-facebook-data-privacy-encryption
    Statecounter GlobalStats, Mobile operating system market share worldwide-September 2018, Retrieved October 10, from: http://gs.statcounter.com/os-market-share/mobile/worldwide
    Statecounter GlobalStats, Search Engine Market Share Worldwide-October 2018, Retrieved November 27, 2018, from: http://gs.statcounter.com/search-engine-market-share
    Roland,Moore-Colyer, Predictive analytics are the future of big data, October 09, 2015, Retrieved August 28,2018, from: https://www.v3.co.uk/v3-uk/analysis/2429494/predictive-analytics-are-the-future-of-big-data

    個案文獻

    CCS 400/007/07, Notification for decision: merger between the Thomson Corporation and Reuters Group PLC, 23 May 2008
    European Commission, “Google/DoubleClick”, COMP/M.4731, Dated 11/03/2008,C(2008) 927 final
    European Commission, “Facebook/WhatsApp”, COMP/M.7217, Dated 03/10/2014, C(2014)7239 final
    European Commission, “Microsoft/Skype”, COMP/M.6281, Dated 07/10/2011, C(2011) 7279
    European Commission, “Microsoft/Yahoo! Search Business”, COMP/M.5727, Brussels, Dated 18/02/2010, SG-Greffe(2010) D/2118, C(2010) 1077
    European Commission, “TomTom/Tele Atlas”, COMP/M.4854, Dated 14/05/2008, C(2008) 1859
    European Commission, “Microsoft/Linkedln”, Case M.8124, Dated 06/12/2016, C(2016) 8404 final
    European Commission, “Google Search (Shopping)”, CASE AT.39740, Brussels, 27/06/2017, C(2017)4444 final
    Judgment of the European Court of Justice(ECJ) , Case C-74/14, Eturas and Others, (21 January 2016)
    No. CR 15-00201 WHO. United States of America v David Topkins. United States District Court of the Northern District of California in San Francisco (30 April 2015)
    U.S. v. Apple Inc, 952 F.Supp.2d 638, 2013-2 Trade Cases P 78, 447 (S.D.N.Y, Jul 10, 2013)
    White v. R.M. Packer Co., 635 F.3d 571, 579(1st Cir.2011)

    國際法案文獻

    Competition Act of Singapore version in force from 16/5/2018
    CCS Guidelines on the Substantive Assessment of Merger 2016
    Communication from the Commission — Guidance on the Commission’s enforcement priorities in applying Article 82 of the EC Treaty to abusive exclusionary conduct by dominant undertakings (2009),OJ C45/7
    European Commission, Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 of January 2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings (the EC Merger Regulation)(OJ L 24, 29.1.2004, p.1)
    European Commission, Guidelines on the assessment of horizontal mergers under the Council Regulation on the control of concentrations between undertakings, (OJ C 31, 5.2.2004, p.5)
    European Commission, Guidelines on the assessment of non-horizontal merger under the Council Regulation on the control of concentrations between undertakings (OJ C 265, 18.10.2008, p.6)
    European Commission(2018), Proposal for a regulation of the European parliament and of the council on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation service, COM(2018) 238 final, 26.4.2018
    Gesetz gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen(GWB)
    Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union(TFEU), (OJ C 326, 26.10.2012, p.1~p.390)

    二、日文資料

    Japan Fair Trade Commission Competition Policy Research Center(公正取引委員会競争政策研究センター), “Report of study group on data and competition policy” (データと競争政策に関する検討会報告書), 2017/06/06
    日本経済産業省,公正取引委員会, 総務省(2018年11月5日), デジタル・プラットフォーマーを巡る取引環境整備に関する中間論点整理(案), デジタル・プラットフォーマーを巡る取引環境整備に関する検討会, Retrieved Retrieved January 6,2019, from: http://www.meti.go.jp/press/2018/11/20181105005/20181105005.html
    日本経済産業省,公正取引委員会, 総務省(2018年12月18日), プラットフォーマー型ビジネスの台頭に対応したルール整備の基本原則について, Retrieved January 6,2019, from: https://www.jftc.go.jp/houdou/pressrelease/h30/dec/kyokusou/181218honbun.pdf
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    法律學系
    98651506
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0098651506
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/DIS.NCCU.LAW.001.2019.F10
    Appears in Collections:[法律學系] 學位論文

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