In 2012, China and the European Union (EU) issued a joint declaration on energy security. It is unclear, however; what progress has been made since then in terms of applying the goals of the declaration. This paper sets out to assess the present state of China and the EU's energy security, the potential for future cooperation, and the obstacles which stand in the way. The analysis assesses the extent to which the two actors can work together on improving energy infrastructure, diversifying supplies, and developing renewable and nuclear energy, possibly by finding synergies between China s Belt and Road Initiative and the EU's Juncker Plan. It also includes a reexamination of the concept of energy security to take account of the urgency of addressing the collapse of the global environment. Overall, the analysis suggests that although due to geographical and other constraints there may be limited opportunity for cooperation between the EU and China on securing oil and gas supplies, there are both scope and a pressing need for joint action in the field of renewable energy.