English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 11 |  Items with full text/Total items : 88668/118332 (75%)
Visitors : 23507357      Online Users : 281
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/124153


    Title: 論氣候變遷責任之保險理賠爭議— 由AES v. Steadfast案出發
    Aes v. Steadfast and the insurance claims issues related to climate change liability
    Authors: 蕭涵煦
    Hsiao, Han-Hsu
    Contributors: 陳俊元
    蕭涵煦
    Hsiao, Han-Hsu
    Keywords: 氣候變遷責任
    商業綜合責任保險
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-07-01 10:50:50 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文旨在探討氣候變遷下,被保險人及保險人間可能發生之保險理賠爭議爭議,以及該爭議可能之解釋方式。隨著全球暖化問題日漸嚴峻,極端氣候所致之財產損害、人身傷亡亦逐年增高。對此,受有損害之人民及政府,開始將矛頭指向氣候變遷之元兇,即大量排放溫室氣體之企業。在面臨政府及人民索賠之鉅額賠償及訴訟費用下,企業思索將其責任風險移轉予其商業綜合責任保險人,因而請求保險人協助其抗辯,或者填補其因賠償第三人所造成之損害,然而,基於氣候變遷訴訟以及商業綜合責任保險之特殊性,此請求將致生爭議。

    第一起被保險人因面臨氣候變遷訴訟向保險人請求協助抗辯,因產生爭議而進入訴訟之案件為AES v. Steadfast案。本案之保險人拒絕協助抗辯,而其理由有三:一、氣候變遷所致之損害,並非事故,不符合商業綜合責任保險之要件;二、氣候變遷所致之損害,為保險契約訂定前即已存在,並延續至保險期間。依損害進行中原則,保險契約不生效力;三、溫室氣體屬於污染,依污染除外條款,溫室氣體所致之損害應排除於承保範圍。由於此三抗辯,在向來皆極具爭議,故可預期在將來之氣候變遷訴訟中,亦應屬保險契約雙方之攻防焦點。

    為分析此三爭議,本文欲分析向來之美國法院判決,對於此三爭議之見解。並將結果套用至氣候變遷訴訟責任風險移轉之爭議案件中,得出保險人在氣候變遷訴訟中,應協助被保險人抗辯及填補損害之結論。

    最後,本文探討商業綜合保險於我國之適用疑義,以及在氣候變遷訴訟中,在我國法下所可能產生之結果,並具以提出建議及結論。
    This article aims to figure out the issues related to climate change liability.

    As the extreme weather caused by climate change aggravated, property damages and body injuries also have increased like never before. Seeking for damages recovery, people and governments began to seek for damages from corporates who frequently emitted greenhouse gases. Facing huge amount of compensating liability and legal fees, corporates seek to transfer these liability risks to their insurers.

    However, several issues appear as corporates seek to transfer their risks. The first case dealing with these issues is AES. v. Steadfast. In this case, the insurer contended that they have no duty to indemnify the insured for several reasons. First, the damages caused by global warming were expected by the insured, thus did not constitute occurrence; Second, the damages have appeared before the contract; Third, greenhouse gases are pollution, pursuant to pollution exclusion, the damages caused by pollution should not be compensated.

    This article analyzes the possible solutions to these issues, and also analyze these issues applying Taiwan’s relating regulations.
    Reference: 中文部分

    書籍
    江朝國,保險法論文集(二),1997年。
    林群弼,保險法論,增訂二版,2003年。
    邱錦添、胡勝益、林克憲,金融消費者保護法與案例解析, 2012年。
    陳彩稚,財產與責任保險之理論基礎,2006年。
    葉俊榮,氣候變遷治理與法律,2015年。
    劉宗榮,新保險法-保險契約法的理論與實務,2007年。

    期刊論文
    李志峰,長尾責任-論美國責任保險保單形式的演變、爭議及我國責任保險保單之特色,保險專刊,第25卷第1期,頁97-132,2009年。
    李志峰,論利益衝突下責任保險人之抗辯義務-以美國法制為核心,全國律師,第16卷第5期,頁39-52,2012年。
    李建良,論司法審查的政治界限:美國「政治問題原則」初探,人文及社會科學集刊,第9卷第4期,頁65-110,1997年。
    汪信君,責任保險人之參與權,月旦法學教室,第21期,2004年,頁32-33。
    林建智,論合理期待原則,保險專刊,第33輯,頁157-166,1993年。
    林建智、李志峰,論責任保險人之抗辯義務:以美國發展為重心,東吳法律學報,第23:2期,頁109-157,2011年。
    張冠群,保險契約條款「疑義」之認定與解釋──評臺灣高等法院一○○年度保險上易字第一號判決,月旦法學雜誌,第210期,頁187-213,2012年。
    張冠群、李慧芳,企業因氣候變遷而生損害賠償責任之成立可能性及其風險管理—以美國法律與務為中心,高大法學論叢,第7卷第2期,頁41-98,2012年。
    陳俊元,怒火地平線-墨西哥灣漏油案與保險契約之解釋,華岡法粹,第62期,頁57,頁49-73,2017年。
    黃丞儀,潔淨空氣,如何解釋?從 Duke Energy (2007) 與 Massachusetts v. EPA (2007)論美國行政法中立法目的、行政 解釋和司法審查之關係,臺大法學論叢,第44卷第3期,頁666-744,2015年。

    博碩士學位論文
    李志峰,責任保險契約當事人於危險事故發生後之義務:以英美相關法制為核心,國立政治大學風險管理與保險學系博士論文,2011年。
    陳彥廷,論金融消費者之權益保障 : 以金融消費者保護法第七條、第八條為中心,國立政治大學法律科際整合研究所碩士論文,2016年。

    網際網路
    李彥麟,談氣候變遷侵權行為訴訟作為推動環境議題的手段:從美國案例來反思,跨越誌,檢自:http://shs.ntu.edu.tw/shsblog/?p=31974.
    國家教育研究院, 教育部重編國語字典,檢自http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/cgi-bin/cbdic/gsweb.cgi?o=dcbdic&searchid=Z00000140807。
    國家教育研究院,教育部重編國語字典,檢自http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/cgi-bin/cbdic/gsweb.cgi?ccd=gI0Vhm&o=e0&sec1=1&op=sid=%22Z00000158599%22.&v=-2.。
    黃麗蓉(民國106年1月24日),新竹平地真的下雪了!氣象局認證:難得一見,中時電子報,檢自:https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20160124003334-260405?chdtv.
    新安東京海上產險,汽車保險,檢自https://www.tmnewa.com.tw/Upload/80755606-dfea-479f-b42c-3598b8d91298/636410883388169172.pdf.



    英文部分

    書籍
    Jerry, Robert H. (1996). UNDERSTANDING INSURANCE LAW. New York: Lexisnexis.
    Metz, Bert, Davidson, Ogunlad E, Coninck, Heleen De, Loos, Manuela & Meyer, Leo (Editors)(2005), IPCC CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE AND STORAGE REPORT. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nordhaus, W. D., & Boyer, J. (2000). WARMING THE WORLD: ECONOMIC MODELS OF GLOBAL WARMING. MASSACHUSETTS. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
    Ostrager, Barry R. & Newman, Thomas R.(2018). HANDBOOK ON INSURANCE COVERAGE DISPUTES. New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
    Robert, H. Jerry II & Henderson, Roger (2001). INSURANCE LAW: CASES AND MATERIALS, St. Paul. MN: West Academic Publishing.
    Stempe, Jeffrey W. & Erik S. (2018). STEMPEL AND KNUTSEN ON INSURANCE COVERAGE. New York: Wolters Kluwer Legal & Regulatory U.S.
    Stern, N. H. (2007). THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE: THE STERN REVIEW. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    期刊
    Abraham, K. S., Environmental Liability and the Limits of Insurance, 88 COLUM. L. REV. 942(1988).
    Abraham, K. S., The Rise and Fall of Commercial Liability Insurance, 87 VA. L. REV. 85(2001).
    Antognini, Richard L., When Will My Troubles End? The Loss In Progress Defense In Progressive Loss Insurance Cases, 25 LOY. L. A. L. REV. 419(1992).
    Ben-Shahar, Omri, Outsourcing Regulation: How Insurance Reduces Moral Hazard,111 MICH. LAW REV 197(2012).
    Blake R. Bertagna, “Standing” Up for the Environment: The Ability of Plaintiffs to Establish Legal Standing to Redress Injuries Caused by Global Warming, BYU L. REV. 415 (2006).
    Bryan, Robert W. & Petrie, John T., Occurrence Coverage for Pollution Damage–Searching for the Policyholder's Actual Subjective Expection, 28 GONZ. L. REV. 553(1993).
    Burke, R. Stephen, Pollution Exclusion Clauses: The Agony, the Ecstasy, and the Irony for Insurance Companies, 17 N. KY. L. REV. 443 (1990).
    Chaifullo, Louis A. & Kane, David C., Application of the Absolute Pollution Exclusion to Nontraditional Pollution, 22 ENVTL. CL. J. 287 (2010).
    Donald, Wylie J. & Davis, Craig W., Carbon Dioxide: Harmless, Ubiquitous, and Certainly Not a Pollutant under a Liability Policy's Absolute Pollution Exclusion, 39 SETON HALL L. REV. 107(2009).
    Fruehauf, Richard L., The Cost of Knowledge: Making Sense of “Nonfortuity”, 84 VA. L. REV. 107 (1998).
    Gerrard, M. B., & MacDougald, J. A., An Introduction To Climate Change Liability Litigation And A View To The Future, 20 CONN. INS. LJ 153(2013).
    Green, David S., Massachusetts v. EPA Without Massachusetts: Private Party Standing in Climate Change Litigation, 36 ENVIRONS: ENVTL. L. & POL'Y J. 35 (2012).
    Grossman, D. A., Warming Up To A Not-So-Radical Idea: Tort-Based Climate Change Litigation, 28 COLUM. J. ENVTL. L. 1(2003).
    He, Q., Mitigation Of Climate Change Risks And Regulation By Insurance: A Feasible Proposal For China, 43 BC ENVTL. AFF. L. REV., 319(2016).
    Heinke, Rex & Biro, Warren J., Is Global Warming a Covered Accident: Is Global Warming a Covered Accident: An Analysis of AES Corp. v. Steadfast Insurance Co, 20 CONN. INS. L.J. 179(2013).
    Heintz, John E., Interpreting the Scope of Coverage for Unexpected Results, 2 ENVTL. CL. J. 377(1990).
    Hettrick, Clyde M., Everything is Relative, Including the Absoluteness of the Current, Restrictive Pollution Exclusion, 21 ENVTL. CL. J. 142(2009).
    Holley, Matt W., The “Fortuity Doctrine”: Misapplying The Known Loss Rule To Liability Insurance Policies, 41 TEX. TECH L. REV. 529(2009).
    Hunter, D., & Salzman, J., Negligence In The Air: The Duty Of Care In Climate Change Litigation, 155 U. PA. L. REV.1741(2006).
    Johnson, J. A., Contractual Liability and the Insured Contract, 5 JOURNAL OF INSURANCE AND INDEMNITY LAW 16 (2012).
    Keeton, Robert E., Insurance Law Rights at Variance with Policy Provisions, 83 HARV. L. REV. 961(1970).
    Klass, A. B., State innovation and preemption: Lessons from State Climate Change Efforts, 41 LOY. L. A. L. REV. 1653(2007).
    Lantz, Chandra. Triggering Coverage of Progressive Property Loss: Preserving The Distinctions Between First-And Third Party Insurance Policies, 35 WM. & MARY L. REV. 1801(1994).
    Malloy, James S. & Sylvester John M., Insurance Coverage For Global Warming Liability Claims, 45 TORT TRIAL & INS. PRAC. LJ, 811(2010).
    Medaglia, M. Elizabeth & Horowit, Gregory H. & Love, Gina S., The Status of Certain Nonfortuity Defenses in Casualty Insurance Coverage, 30 TORT & INS. L.J. 943(1995).
    Mielenhausen, T. C., Insurance Coverage For Environmental And Toxic Tort Claims, 17 WM. MITCHELL L. REV. 945(1991).
    Nevius, J. G., & Dolmanisth, S. J., The Pollution-Exclusion Conspiracy: A Newly Recognized Basis for Recovery, 13 PACE. ENVTL. L. REV., 1103 (1995).
    Oliver, Darlene M., The Use of the Pollution Exclusion in Nontraditional Environmental Contexts, 10 ENVTL. CL. J. 39(1998).
    Roberts, David M., The “Known Risk” Doctrine: The Emperor's New Clothes, 3 ENVTL. CLAIMS J. 511(1991).
    Shelley, William P. & Mason, Richard C., Application Of The Absolute Pollution Exclusion To Toxic Tort Claims: Will Courts Choose Policy Construction Or Deconstruction?, 33 TORT & INS. L.J. 749(1998).
    Stix, G., A Climate Repair Manual, 295 SCIAM 46(2006).
    Vincent, David P., AES v. Steadfast and the Concept of Foreseeability in Climate Change Litigation, 44 ENVTL. L. 201(2014).
    Zipursky, B., The Restatement (Third) and The Place Of Duty In Negligence Law, 54 VAND. L. REV. 657(2001).

    網際網路
    Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers, Retrieved May 8, 2019 ,from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf.
    UNEP Finance Initiative, Adaptation and Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Role of the Finance Sector 14, Retrieved May 8, 2019 ,from http://www.unepfi.org/fileadmin/documents/CEO_briefing_adaptation_vulnerability_2006.pdf.
    The University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, Insurability in the face of Climate Change, Retrieved May 8, 2019 ,from https://www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/business-action/sustainable-finance/climatewise/pdfs/insurability-in-the-face-of-climate-change.pdf/view.
    John Green, The Myth of “Accident-Based” Policies, Retrieved May 8, 2019 ,from https://www.farellacoveragelaw.com/2010/04/the-myth-of-accident-based-policies.html/.
    Jill Berkeley, Breaching the Duty to Defend: Remedy for Recovering Peace of Mind, retrieved May 15, 2019, from https://www.lexisnexis.com/legalnewsroom/insurance/b/badfaithdutydefend/posts/breaching-the-duty-to-defend-remedy-for-recovering-peace-of-mind.
    Foley Hoag, Martin C. Pentz & Creighton K. Page, Obligations of Insurer and Policyholder, Retrieved May 8, 2019 ,from https://foleyhoag.com/publications/ebooks-and-white-papers/2017/october/obligations-of-insurer-and-policyholder.
    Center for Climate and Energy Solution, The Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Retrieved May 8, 2019 ,from https://unfccc.int/topics/science/workstreams/cooperation-with-the-ipcc/the-fifth-assessment-report-of-the-intergovernmental-panel-on-climate-change
    Crawford, Dale C., The I.S.O. Pollution Exclusion: How Far Does It Goes, Retrieved May 8, 2019, from http://www.dalecrawford.com/article_%20AAIMCo.pdf.
    Morley J Weston(June 1, 2017), INFOGRAPHIC: How Climate Change Will Impact Taiwan, The News Lens, retrieved May 14, 2019, from https://international.thenewslens.com/article/69579.
    Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Retrieved May 8, 2019 ,from https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide.
    Contractual Liability and the CGL Policy, Retrieved May 8, 2019, from https://www.irmi.com/articles/expert-commentary/contractual-liability-and-the-cgl-policy.
    Donald S. Malecki, More Bad News For Contractors, Retrieved June 23, 2019, from http://roughnotes.com/rnmagazine/2006/february06/02p094.htm.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    風險管理與保險學系
    1043580221
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1043580221
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900057
    Appears in Collections:[風險管理與保險學系 ] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    022101.pdf2460KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback