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    Title: 我國二度就業婦女重返職場問題與因應對策之探討
    A study on the iIssue and relevant policy of re-entry into the labor market for career break women
    Authors: 陳婷筠
    Chen, Ting-Yun
    Contributors: 成之約
    Cheng, Chih-Yu
    陳婷筠
    Chen, Ting-Yun
    Keywords: 二度就業婦女
    重返職場
    就業困境
    女性就業促進政策
    Career Break Women
    Re-entry into labor market
    Employment issues
    Female labor policy
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-09-05 16:52:04 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 我國人口結構面臨少子高齡化問題,預測未來工作人口持續減少且呈現高齡化,勞動政策必須有所準備,對未來勞動市場人口短缺的問題採取適當措施,也成為促進女性投入勞動市場的契機。2018年我國女性人口已超越男性,顯示未來女性人口將成為勞動市場主力,提升女性勞動參與率被認為是穩定且有助於緩解勞動人口短缺的最佳選擇。然我國女性於30歲以後出現退出勞動市場的現象,受到結婚、生產、育兒及負擔照顧家人等因素影響,女性勞參率隨年齡增加而下降,再加上婚育離開職場女性無明顯復職、退休年齡提前等現象,致我國45歲以上之女性勞參率低於日、韓,並成呈現倒V字發展,有別於日、韓女性有隨子女成長後重返勞動市場使勞動參與率呈現M字發展,凸顯我國女性在重返職場的機會與過程是有難度的,特別是中高齡女性再就業之問題。

    本研究透過一對一的深度訪談與文獻分析,了解我國已婚女性就業現況與重返職場之困境,以及專家學者與政府單位對現行政策之看法與建議,並參考日本與南韓協助二度就業婦女再就業政策之經驗,提出二度就業婦女重返職場之因應對策與改善建議。綜合有二度就業婦女經驗與未來潛在的二度就業婦女的看法,可以發現她們分別在個人、家庭、工作的共同困境:個人條件方面的困境主要來自於年齡產生的排擠效果、經驗與知識技不足;家庭狀況則是家人反對、影響家庭和諧、照顧子女仍維持親自照顧的觀念,對目前的托育制度與保母照顧品質感到不信任的態度居多;工作環境方面則有工時無彈性、工作條件較差、雇主僱用意願低等問題,也有受到過去工作經驗與職業限制影響重返職場的工作選擇,也可以發現女性的工作能力被貶低的情形。政策建議方面,本研究認為,個人方面必須強化就業服務與支援協助,透過加強就業服務與就業支持,提升個案管理員就業支持的服務密度,並掌握二度就業婦女的人數與動向,強化宣傳就業資訊與接觸服務對象的效果;家庭方面必須建立符合需求的托育照護制度與友善職場的環境,家庭內部則須仰賴家庭成員的互助合作,讓有照顧子女需求的女性得以安心繼續工作;工作與環境方面必須維持女性穩定就業的狀態,透過提供多元的工作設計與友善職場措施,並協助雇主重新認識女性勞動力,鼓勵雇主增加雇用女性的意願,提高女性重返職場的機會。
    The population structure in Taiwan is facing the problem of decreasing birth rate and aging society which is predicted that the working population will continue to decrease and it will be aging in the future. Therefore, Labor policies must be prepared and take appropriate measures for the shortage of labor market. It is also become an opportunity to promote women's participation in the labor market. In 2018, female population in Taiwan has surpassed that of men, and it shows that female population in the future will become the main force of the labor market. Increasing female labor participation rate is considered to be the best choice for the shortage of labor market. However, the phenomenon of women who withdraw from the labor market after the age of 30 is affected by factors such as marriage, childbirth, child-caring for the family. Besides, female participation rate declines with age, and rate of female participation over 45 years old in Taiwan is lower than Japan and South Korea because women in Taiwan don't return to the labor market due to marriage, childbirth and early retirement age. Female labor participation rate in Taiwan develop in ''V'', but women in Japan and Korea will returned to the labor market after their children grow up and makes female labor participation rate develop in ''M''. It shows that it is difficult for women to return to the workplace and, especially for middle-aged women.

    Through one-to-one interview and the document analysis, the study will understand the current situation of married women in Taiwan and the difficulties in returning to the labor market, as well as the opinions and suggestions of experts, scholars and government agencies on current policies. It will also take the experience and the policy of career-break women in Japan and South Korea as reference. Refer to the document analysis and the interview, the study will give the advice for labor policy to promote career-break women re-entry into the labor market in Taiwan.The study divide career break women into two categories: the career break women who have the experience to re-entry into the labor market, and the career break women who don't re-entry into the labor market after they leave the labor market due to marriage, childbirth and child-caring. It shows that they are in the common dilemma of individuals, families, and work: the dilemma in individuals mainly comes from the effect of age, lack of experience and knowledge. Family status is the opposition form family members, affecting family harmony, caring for children by herself, and most of the attitudes towards the current children care system and the quality of nursery care are mostly untrustworthy. There are problems in work environment, such as inflexible working hours, poor working conditions, low employer's willingness to hire, and work choices that have been affected by past work experience and occupational restrictions, and can also find that women's work ability is belittled. In terms of policy suggestions, the study considers that the government must strengthen employment services and support assistance in individual status by enhancing the service density of employment service and support, understanding the number and trends of career break women, strengthening the effectiveness of promoting employment information and supply to those who need. Advice to the family status is the government must establish a childcare system that mother needs and create a friendly environment in workplace. Within family, Cooperation between family members to do the house working and child-caring is necessary, so that women who have the needs of caring for their children can continue to work without concern. In the work and the environment status, it must maintain a stable employment situation for women by providing multiple job design and friendly workplace, and assisting employers to re-recognize the female workforce, encouraging employers to increase their willingness to hire women and the women will have chances of returning to the labor market.
    Reference: 一、 專書
    成之約、潘世偉、李健鴻、辛炳隆、張玉燕、陳秋蓉(2012),勞動政策,初版,臺北:空大。
    焦興鎧等18人合著(2009),勞動基準法釋義-施行二十年之回顧與展望,臺北:新學林。
    衛民、許繼峰(2013),勞資關係:平衡效率與公平,3版,臺北:前程文化。
    鄭津津(2012),職場與法律,修訂4版,臺北:新學林。

    二、 期刊論文
    伊慶春、簡文吟(2001),已婚婦女的持續就業:家庭制度與勞動市場的妥協。台灣社會學第一期,頁149-182,2001年6月。
    林淑慧(2016),我國中高齡婦女勞動參與的提升-從婦女勞動特性與國外經驗談起。台灣勞工季刊,第45期。2016年3月。
    林淑慧、馬才專(2015),「提升中高齡婦女勞動參與政策之可行性研究」,行政院委託研究案,2015年12月。
    邱誌鵬(2012),我國幼兒托育制度之研究,行政院委託研究報告,頁243,2012年3月。
    俞惠君(1997),男女工作平等及女性之保護,勞工法規研討會會議實錄論文集,1997年。
    翁毓秀(2009),日本、韓國少子女高齡化社會之因應對策-台灣做了甚麼?未來可以做甚麼?社區發展季刊,第125期,頁240-255,2009年6月。
    劉梅君(2015),婦女就業促進的契機與挑戰,就業安全半年刊,2015年12月,頁32-40。
    薛承泰、簡文吟(1997),再就業婦女的職業流動初探,人口學刊第18期,頁67-98,1997年6月。
    簡文吟、薛承泰(1994),台灣地區已婚婦女就業型態及其影響因素,人口學刊第17期,頁113-134。
    藍科正(2015),提昇女性勞動參與之政策探討,就業安全半年刊,2015年12月。

    三、 學位論文
    林怡君(2004),新經濟體系下台灣女性勞動者經濟安全保障之研究-以退休金制度為例,國立中正大學社會福利研究所碩士論文。
    林祐慈(2010),星空下的玻璃天花板現象-以警政單位女性警官升遷為例,國立政治大學勞工研究所碩士論文。
    張芳華(2008),已婚婦女就業影響因素:不同家庭生命週期的檢視,國立台北大學社會學系碩士在職專班碩士論文。
    廖捐惠(2010),玻璃天花板效應:中央行政機關女性公務人員陞遷障礙因素之研究,國立政治大學行政管立碩士學程碩士論文。
    魏秀蓮(2015),高跟鞋的職涯發展與限制之研究:以壽險公司女性從業人員為例,國立中正大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。

    四、 政府調查報告
    行政院主計處,105年婦女婚育與就業調查。
    行政院主計處,106年人力資源調查統計年報。
    內政部,統計處,最新統計指標。
    行政院性別平等會,重要性別統計資料庫。
    行政院國家發展委員會,中華民國人口推估(105年-150年)。
    勞動部,106年工作場所就業平等概況調查。
    勞動部,106年民眾利用公立就業服務機構求職概況。
    勞動部,107年部分工時勞工就業實況調查。
    經濟部中小企業處,2018年中小企業白皮書。

    五、 網路新聞
    熟齡樂活大聯盟暨上班族退休大調查,1111人力銀行職場新聞,2015/07/16,http://www.1111.com.tw/news/surveyns_con.asp?ano=80608。
    婦女二度就業 那些戰勝不了的事,中央通訊社,2015/08/01,http://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/201508010032-1.aspx。
    甘獻基(2019),搶救生育率(三):別讓生育成就業障礙,鼓勵年輕人「敢懷敢生」,2019/02/22,https://opinion.udn.com/opinion/story/12638/3646144。

    六、 外文參考資料

    (一) 英文文獻
    ILO (2016), Women at Work: Trends 2016, Geneva: ILO.
    ILO (2017), Towards a better future for women and work: Voices of women and men, Gallup, Inc. and International Labour Organization.
    ILO (2017), Women at Work Centenary Initiative , accessed from http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/history/centenary/WCMS_480301/lang--en/index.htm on January 7, 2018.
    ILO (2017), World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends for Women 2017, Geneva: ILO.
    Korean Labor Law, The Act on the Promotion of the Economic Activities of Career-Break Women.
    Ministry of Employment and Labor (2018), 2018 Employment and Labor Policy in Korea, Republic of Korea.
    Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (2016), Analysis of Survey on Economic Activities of Career-break Women, November 28, 2016 ,Seoul, Korea.
    OECD (2017), ‘’Chapter13: Barriers to Woman’s Career Path and Income Mobility’’, The Pursuit of Gender Equality: An Uphill Battle, Paris: OECD , 167-176, accessed from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264281318-en on January 14 ,2018.

    (二) 日文文獻
    パートタイム労働法改正のポイント,http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/0000060383.html
    厚生労働省,女性の職業生活における活躍の推進に関する法律の概要,http://www.gender.go.jp/policy/suishin_law/horitsu_kihon/pdf/law_gaiyou.pdf
    厚生労働省(2015),雇用均等基本調査,平成27年。
    厚生労働省(2016),「短時間正社員制度」導入支援マニュアル,平成28年3月。
    厚生労働省(2016),女性活躍推進法の施行状況について,http://www.gender.go.jp/policy/suishin_law/horitsu_kihon/pdf/joseikatsuyaku_sekoujoukyou.pdf,平成28年5月20日。
    厚生労働省(2016),働く女性に関する対策の概況,平成28年版働く女性の実情,平成28年。
    厚生労働省(2018),男女雇用機会均等法のあらまし,都道府県労働局雇用環境・均等部(室),平成30年5月。
    厚生労働省(2018),男女雇用機会均等法のあらまし,都道府県労働局雇用環境・均等部(室),平成30年5月。
    厚生労働省女性活躍推進法特集ページ,http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/0000091025.html。
    国立社会保障人口問題研究所(2015),第15回出生動向基本調査:夫婦調査,平成27年。
    三菱UFJリサーチ&コンサルティング(株)(2015),仕事と家庭の両立支援に関する実態把握のための調査研究事業報告書,平成27年。
    土屋品子(2014),「女性が輝く日本」の実現に向けて,https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/keizaisaisei/bunka/koyou/dai7/siryou3-2.pdf
    独立行政法人労働政策研究・研修機構(2013)女正社員のキャリアと両立支援に関する調査結果,平成24年度。
    内閣府男女共同参画局,女性活躍推進法「見える化」サイト,http://www.gender.go.jp/policy/suishin_law/horitsu_kihon/index.html#kohyo
    内閣府男女共同参画局(2007),女性のライフプランニング支援に関する調査,平成19年。
    労働政策研究・研修機構(2017)データブック国際労働比較2017,3-3就業者及び管理職に占める女性の割合(2015年),平成29年。

    (三) 韓文文獻
    여성가족부 경력단절여성지원과 서울특별시(2016),2016년 경력단절여성 등의 경제활동실태조사 – 조사분석,2016년 11월 28일 인쇄。
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    勞工研究所
    103262015
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103262015
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900837
    Appears in Collections:[勞工研究所] 學位論文

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