尖石鄉（Nahuy）為新竹縣面積最大的山地原住民鄉，而泰雅族族人世代依循祖先與大自然共生共存的利用法則，從傳統從山田燒墾自給自足有採集到後來殖民政府帶來經濟產業的活動行為過程中，族人的生活空間受到不同外來政權的限縮，後來國家將原住民族大部分的的生活空間國有化，將森林歸為國有財產，造成了原住民族和國家在資源使用上的衝突與矛盾。本論文將從環境史及政治生態學觀點切入，探討國家力量對地方發展與人地關係互動的影響力為何。政治生態學涵蓋許多面向，包含國家政策如何影響資源利用型態；政經關係如何操控資源的利用發展舉例來說，從民國五十年代開始尖石鄉族人隨著外來經濟交易開始種植香菇，從族人的角度，是在傳統領域使用自己的土地和森林，但從林務局的角度，則認為族人是竊盜國有林班地中之國有財產的盜伐者。本論文旨在將不為人知歷史事件透過田野調查深度訪談，從泰雅族人的觀點來翻開這段台灣山林史中不為記載的傷痕。 Jiahshih Township, customarily known as Nahuy in Tayal language, is the largest mountain Indigenous township in Hsinchu County. Tayal people have been living in their traditional territory customarily and sustainably. Transforming from traditional slash-and-burn agriculture to cash crop cultivation, Indigenous Tayal people’s living space have been restrained substantially. Their traditional territory has been taken over by the State and causing conflict between the State and Indigenous Tayal people. Through adopting the lens of environmental history and political ecology, this thesis investigates how the State mechanism affects local development and people-environment relations. Political ecology has multifaceted approaches. This thesis analyzes how the State mechanism affects natural resource managements. Tayal people in Jianshih Township started to grow mushroom from the 1960s. From Tayal people’s perspectives, they were utilizing natural resource in their traditional territory; from the Forest Bureau’s perspectives, Tayal people were illegal logger. Standing at a Tayal-centric viewpoint, this thesis aims to record this rarely know history through in-depth fieldwork.