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    題名: 97年原住民就業狀況調查
    作者: 林佳瑩;梁德馨
    貢獻者: 原住民委員會
    全國意向顧問股份有限公司;國立政治大學社會系
    關鍵詞: 原住民;就業;統計;統計學;社會學;公共行政
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-10-05 14:59:06 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 一、15歲以上原住民基本狀況 97年12月臺閩地區年滿15歲以上原住民現住人數有376,857人。從行政區域來看,以非原住民鄉鎮市的127,069人最多(33.72%)、其次是山地鄉的126,428人(33.55%)、平地原住民鄉鎮市的105,225人(27.92%),而臺北市為9,749人(2.59%)、高雄市為8,049人(2.14%),金馬地區最少,為337人(0.09%)。原住民人口的分佈變化較小,非原住民鄉鎮市人口比例較前一年成長1.27個百分點,人口成長較為明顯。族別分佈以阿美族的人數最多,占36.01%,其次是排灣族(17.33%)、泰雅族(16.50%)與布農族(10.15%),再其次是太魯閣族(4.96%)、魯凱族(2.36%)及卑南族(2.30%)等,而以撒奇萊雅族最少,僅有0.07%。性別以男女性各占48.74%、51.26%,和一般民眾相比較,15歲以上的一般民眾性別分配則是以男性多於女性(50.12%及49.88%)。年齡上以20至29歲的22.23%最多,其次是30至39歲的20.38%、40至49歲的20.04%、50至59歲的13.76%、15至19歲的12.24%,而60歲及以上者占11.21%。和一般民眾相比較,一般民眾65歲及以上者占12.56%,高於原住民的8.01%。教育程度:15歲以上原住民教育程度以高中職最多,占36.05%,其次是小學及以下的26.98%及國初中的22.85%。和一般民眾比較,專科或以上學歷者,一般民眾有35.40%,而原住民則僅有14.12%;國初中或以下學歷者原住民有49.83%,而一般民眾只有32.16%。歷年比較呈現相同的趨勢,可見原住民整體教育程度水準落後於一般民眾甚低。婚姻狀況來看有配偶者占50.33%,未婚者有36.10%,而離婚者有6.37%或喪偶者有7.19%。和一般民眾比較,原住民的婚姻狀況分佈與一般民眾大致相當。家計分擔狀況來看,15歲以上原住民有64.27%需要負責家計,其中有35.27%為家計主要負責人,29.00%為次要家計負責人,而不需要負責家計的有33.96%。健康狀況方面,有67.11%的原住民表示目前健康狀況良好(包含很好),11.97%表示不好(包含很不好),而表示普通的有20.85%。另外有0.07%未回答。個人每月平均收入來看,原住民個人每月收入以無經常性收入或沒有收入者占的比例最高(28.05%),有收入者以2萬至未滿3萬元者(18.96%)最高,其次為未滿1萬元者的18.87%,再其次是1萬至未滿2萬元(18.20%),3萬元以上則是收入愈高所占的比例就愈低。平均數而言,15歲以上原住民平均每人每月收入約14,742元(中位數15,000元),而有酬就業者平均每人每月主要工作收入約23,761元,有酬就業者的平均收入雖較前一年之平均27,049元減少3,288元,負成長13.84%,與一般民眾有酬就業者有明顯的差距(1.53倍)。二、原住民勞動力分析 1.原住民勞動力參與率61.54%、失業率7.92% 97年12月,原住民15歲以上不含現役軍人、監管人口與失蹤人口之民間人口有363,103人,其中勞動力人數有223,464人,勞動力參與率為61.54%。與歷年調查結果相比較,97年原住民勞動力參與率較前一年微幅下降1.15個百分點,且為例年的最低點。與一般民眾比較,97年12月原住民的勞動力參與率為61.54%或62.72%(含現役軍人但不含監管人口及失蹤人口),皆明顯高於一般民眾的58.20%。從歷年趨勢變化來看,原住民的勞動力參與率和一般民眾有趨近的趨勢。原住民勞動力人口中有205,765人為就業人口,就業率為92.08%;17,699人為失業人口,失業率為7.92%。與歷年調查結果比較,原住民失業率由88年3月的8.15%上升至90年3月的9.83%,之後下降至91年5月的8.99%,再由92年5月的10.33%降至95年12月的4.36%,而97年12月則較96年12月顯著提升至7.92%。 2.原住民從事零星工作比例下降從事有報酬的工作的原住民當中,有22.40%表示從事零星工作,不是從事零星工作的比例為77.60%。原住民從事零星工作的比例由96年的29.11%下降至97年的22.40%。多數(75.28%)從事零星工作原住民想轉從事規律性工作。 3.原住民勞動力33.08%有意願參與職業訓練原住民勞動力者中未來想參加職訓者占33.08%;不想參加職訓者占66.92%。未來有意願參加職訓的原住民勞動力,希望參加的職訓類型前5名依序為「民宿管理、餐飲服務類」占27.70%、「電腦、資訊類」占22.96%、「營建、木工類」占15.53%、「美容、美髮類」占14.25%及「園藝、造景」占13.97%。有11.53%的原住民勞動力以前有參加過政府或民間機構所辦理的職業訓練,其中55.76%有從事相關的工作,44.24%沒有;沒有從事相關工作的原因,以「沒有工作機會」的比例最高,有36.49%,其次是「找不到與訓練相關的工作」(27.23%)。 4. 原住民勞動力3.18%有參與建教合作或產學合作原住民勞動力者有參與建教合作或產學合作經驗者僅占3.81%;沒有經驗者占96.19%。有參加建教合作或產學合作經驗的原住民勞動力者,認為此經驗對於就業有幫助者占48.78%,另外有45.55%認為對就業沒有幫助。 5. 近二成(18.58%)原住民勞動人口持有技能檢定合格證照近二成(18.58%)原住民勞動人口持有技能檢定合格證照。持有技能檢定合格證照的原住民勞動力者當中,有64.49%認為證照對就業有幫助,認為沒有幫助者占33.41%。三、原住民就業狀況分析 1.原住民就業者從事行業以「營造業」、「農林漁牧業」及「製造業」為主原住民就業者從事的行業,以從事「製造業」最多(14.03%),其次是「營造業」及「農林漁牧業」(分別為13.89%、12.30%)。和一般民眾比較,原住民從事「農林漁牧業」、「營造業」及「其他服務業」的比例明顯高於一般民眾從事的比例,但原住民從事「製造業」、「批發及零售業」及「金融及保險業」所占的比例則是遠低於一般民眾。 2.原住民就業者從事職業以「服務工作人員及售貨員」為主原住民就業者所從事的職業中,以「服務工作人員及售貨員」高達20.77%,而「非技術工及體力工」有17.25%,「技術工及有關工作人員」有16.99%。和一般民眾比較,原住民在「技術工及有關工作人員、機械設備操作工及組裝工、非技術工及體力工」及「農林漁牧工作人員」所占比例均明顯高於一般民眾。但在其他職業的部分,原住民的比例則偏低,如民意代表、行政主管、企業主管及經理人員、專業人員、技術員及助理專業人員、事務工作人員等。 3.原住民就業者從業身分以「受私人僱用」為主原住民就業者的從業身分以受私人僱用者最多,有74.28%,自營作業者占11.83%,受政府僱用者占11.42%,無酬家屬工作者占1.58%,以擔任雇主的0.90%最少。受政府僱用者當中,有59.84%沒有正式公務員任用資格,40.16%有正式公務員任用資格。原住民就業者,97.75%不是原住民合作社社員。原住民就業者,僅有0.64%有從事原住民合作社的工作。 4.原住民就業者有4.41%從事政府提供的臨時工作從事有報酬工作的原住民就業者當中,有4.41%從事由政府提供的臨時性工作。其中有24.66%工作期限是12個月以上,44.69%工作期限為未滿6個月;從事政府提供之臨時工作者當中,近九成(89.05%)認為臨時性工作對生活改善有幫助(非常有幫助22.43%、有幫助66.62%)。從事政府提供臨時性工作原住民,在臨時性工作結束後有73.90%表示會留在原鄉找工作,12.55%會留在都會找工作,3.35%離開原鄉到都會找工作,1.23%會回到原鄉找工作。 5. 原住民有酬工作者有6.29%從事一般企業臨時性工作從事有報酬工作原住民6.29%從事一般企業提供臨時性工作,有49.05%工作期限是12個月以上,21.43%工作期限為未滿6個月。從事一般企業提供臨時性工作者當中,34.56%認為臨時性工作對生活改善有幫助(含非常有幫助),而認為沒有幫助的則有58.85%(不太有幫助9.84%、完全沒有幫助49.01%)。 6. 原住民就業者,平均每週工時為43.34小時原住民就業者平均每週工時為35至44小時者占37.58%,其次為每週工時55小時及以上者,占22.28%,再其次為45至44小時者,占19.44%。就整體平均工時來看,原住民就業者平均每週工時為43.34小時。每週工時不足35小時的原住民就業者當中,有69.08%想增加工時,想增加工時的主要原因以「想增加收入補貼家用」為最高,有83.70%。除無收入或無經常性收入者外,有酬就業原住民中以收入未滿1萬元的平均每週工作時數最低(33.06小時);而以收入在5萬元至未滿6萬元及4萬元至未滿5萬元的平均每週工時最高,分別為50.85小時及50.23小時。原住民的工作地點以花蓮縣(17.84%)、臺東縣(17.16%)、屏東縣(11.33%)及桃園縣(10.39%)最多,合計有56.72%的原住民在此四縣工作。 7.原住民就業者近八成對工作狀況滿意原住民就業者對目前工作狀況滿意為79.43%。對目前工作不滿意的原因主要是因為工作待遇太低(63.96%)。 8.僅3.39%原住民就業者在工作場所因為原住民身分受到歧視大部分(96.61%)的原住民在工作場所沒有因為原住民的身分而受到歧視,有受到歧視的占3.39%。93.46%的原住民就業者在工作場所沒有遇到過職業災害,而有6.54%曾發生過職業災害。 9. 87.56%原住民就業者未曾參加過職業訓練原住民就業者從來沒有參加過政府或民間機構舉辦的職訓比例高達87.56%,以前有參加過者占11.64%,目前現在正在參加者占0.79%。有參加過職訓的原住民就業者當中,經過職業訓練之後沒有從事與職訓相關工作者高達40.47%。沒有從事相關工作的原因以「沒有工作機會」所占比例最高38.63%。原住民就業者30.75%有意願參加職訓,以「民宿管理、餐飲服務類」(28.34%)、「電腦、資訊類」(23.66%)比例較高。原住民就業者近二成(19.02%)持有技能檢定合格證照。四、原住民失業狀況分析 97年度調查顯示,原住民勞動力人口中有205,765人為就業人口,就業率為92.08%;17,699人為失業人口,失業率為7.92%。 1.原住民失業者的失業平均週數為39.75週原住民失業者,至資料標準週,平均已失業39.75週,其中以女性(43.83週)、高年齡層、低教育程度失業者失業週數相對較高。 2.原住民失業者求職管道以私人關係為主;多數仰賴家庭協助經濟原住民失業者尋找工作的方法與管道,以「託親友師長介紹」(50.42%)的比例最高,其次是「看報紙」(38.11%)、「自我推薦及詢問」(21.91%)及「向公立就業服務機構求職(含上網)」(21.22%)。原住民失業者沒有工作期間的主要經濟來源以「家庭協助」為主,近七成(67.12%)原住民失業者依賴家庭給予經濟上的協助,其次為「親友協助」(23.07%)與「積蓄」(17.80%)。原住民失業者在找尋工作過程中,29.16%有遇到工作機會但是沒有去工作的原因,以「待遇太低」(33.58%)及「工時不適合」(24.38%)為主,其次是「遠景不佳」(22.60%)。原住民失業者有70.08%在找尋工作過程中沒有遇到過工作機會,主要遭遇的困難以「生活圈沒有工作機會」(55.44%)為主,其次是「就業資訊不足」(26.41%)、「技術不合」(21.58%)與「年齡限制」(20.58%)。 3.原住民失業者76.73%離開上次工作的原因是非自願離職失業的原住民當中,有53.75%在過去一年曾經有過工作。有76.73%離開上次工作的原因是非自願離職,有22.10%是自願離職。非自願離開上次工作主因是「工作場所業務緊縮或歇業」(63.04%)及「季節性或臨時性的工作結束」(29.57%);自願離開上次工作主因是「對原有工作不滿意」(34.92%)及「工作場所業務緊縮或歇業」(18.32%)。 4.原住民失業者多數希望從事服務工作人員及售貨員、非技術工及體力工及技術工及有關工作人員;五成一(51.49%)的原住民失業者最希望在原居的家鄉或鄰近的鄉鎮工作原住民失業者當中,最希望從事的工作內容以「營建職類」為最多,占26.07%,其次是「餐飲旅遊運動」的19.99%,再其次是「技術服務」(18.18%)。合計有五成一(51.49%)的原住民失業者最希望在原居的家鄉或鄰近的鄉鎮工作。而原住民失業者希望在「都會區」工作者占21.76%。希望在原居的家鄉或鄰近鄉鎮工作的原住民失業者,有66.88%認為當地沒有自己想要從事的工作機會。 5.九成五原住民失業者從來沒有申請就業促進津貼九成五(95.57%)的原住民失業者並沒有申請任何一項就業促進津貼。扣除資格不符者,其沒有申請的主要原因為「不知道有這些津貼」(74.41%),其次是「不知如何申請」(10.21%)。 6.原住民失業勞資爭議以薪資未付最常見失業的原住民中,近九成(89.72%)沒有發生過勞資爭議,有7.27%表示曾發生過勞資爭議,另有3.01%沒有工作經驗。曾經發生過勞資爭議的原住民失業者當中,以發生「薪資未付」的比例最高(67.00%)。 7.原住民失業者最需要就業資訊及就業媒合原住民失業者所需要政府提供就業服務的比例,以「就業資訊」的需求比例最高(64.14%),其次是「就業媒合」(46.26%)及「就業諮詢」(29.58%)。 8.原住民失業者個人收入下降原住民失業者98.26%個人每月無經常性收入或沒有收入,收入未滿1萬元者為1.48%,1萬至未滿2萬元者為0.26%,原住民失業者個人每月收入為113元,低於96年調查的1,840元,也遠低於原住民就業者個人每月收入的23,599元。 9.原住民失業者88.10%未曾參加過職業訓練;60.17%原住民失業者有意願參加職業訓練 88.10%的原住民失業者從來沒有參加過職訓。有參加過職訓的原住民失業者中沒有從事相關工作者占59.17%,未從事相關工作的原因以「沒有工作機會」所占比例最高(43.71%)。失業者原住民有意願參加職訓者占60.17%。失業者原住民希望參加的職訓類型為「民宿管理、餐飲服務類」占23.87%及「營建、土木類」占22.46%。 10.原住民失業者13.52%持有技能檢定合格證照原住民失業者中持有技能檢定合格證照者占13.52%,沒有者86.48%。持有技能檢定合格證照的原住民失業者中有36.75%認為證照對找工作有幫助,63.25%認為沒有幫助。五、原住民非勞動力狀況分析原住民97年12月非勞動力人數有139,639人,其中未參與勞動力原因以「求學及準備升學」所占的比例最高(31.30%),其次依序為「高齡、身心障礙、傷病」30.00%、「料理家務」29.33%、「賦閒」6.23%及「想工作未找工作,但隨時可以工作」2.33%。六、女性原住民勞動狀況分析依據行政院主計處97年12月資料顯示,一般民眾女性的勞動力參與率為49.75%,同時期女性原住民勞動力參與率高於一般女性為53.16%;未參與勞動力的原因皆依序為「料理家務」「求學及準備升學」及「高齡、身心障礙、傷病」。 1.女性原住民就業狀況女性原住民就業者之教育程度較一般就業女性為低,女性原住民就業者則集中在高中職、國初中及小學及以下較高。女性原住民就業者平均一週工時為43.13小時,但平均月收入方面女性原住民就業者較一般就業女性少約9,940元。女性原住民就業者所從事的職業方面以「生產/工人機械設備操作工」及「農林漁牧工作人員」所占比例均明顯高於女性一般民眾;在「技術員及助理專業人員」及「事務工作人員」,女性原住民就業者從事的比例則偏低於女性一般民眾就業者。 2.女性原住民失業狀況女性原住民的失業率(6.63%)較女性一般民眾的失業率(4.41%)高2.22個百分點。平均失業週數為43.83週,多數女性原住民失業者找工作面臨的困擾是「沒有工作機會」、「就業資訊不足」及「教育程度限制」。失業的女性原住民最希望從事的職業為的工作內容以「家事服務」及「餐飲旅遊運動」為主。失業的女性原住民當中,有10.81%表示以前有參加過或目前正在參加職訓;參加過職訓的女性原住民失業當中,有46.08%沒有從事與職訓課程相關的工作,而沒有從事相關工作的原因主要「沒有工作機會」(36.83%)。七、追蹤受訪原住民勞動狀況分析在所有追蹤受訪原住民當中,高達55.20%過去一年的工作情況屬於「從事某種工作」,其次為「求學」。追蹤就業者包含「穩定就業者(就業-就業)」、「失業轉就業者(失業-就業)」和「進入勞動力就業者(新增就業者)」三大類。主要以受私人僱用為主,受政府僱用者中僅有41.77%具有正式的公務員任用資格。每月平均收入約為23,617元,對工作的滿意度上81.61%對工作滿意(非常滿意4.99%;滿意76.63%);需要政府提供的就業服務依序為「就業資訊」、「就業媒合」、「就業諮詢」和「創業輔導」。追蹤失業者包含「短期失業者(就業-失業)」、「長期失業者(失業-失業)」和「進入勞動力失業者(新增失業者)」三大類。男性(60.96%)占比高於女性(39.04%)。約有七成在找尋工作過程沒有到工作機會,有遇到工作機會但卻沒有去工作的主要原因在於遠景不佳與待遇太低;在找尋工作過程所遭遇的困難絕大部分來自「生活圈沒有工作機會」、「年齡限制」與「教育程度限制」;需要政府提供的就業服務為「就業資訊」、「就業媒合」和「就業諮詢」。 I. Basic Overview of Indigenous Peoples Age 15 or Older In December 2008, there were 376,857 indigenous residents age 15 or older in the Taiwan region. Administrative region: 127,069 people lived in towns and cities which were non-indigenous (33.72%), 126,428 people (33.55%) lived in mountain villages, 105,225 people (27.92%) lived in plains townships for indigenous peoples, 9,749 people (2.59%) lived in Taipei City, 8,049 people (2.14%) lived in Kaohsiung City, and the fewest number lived in the Kinmen-Matsu area, only 337 people (0.09%). There is less of a change in the distribution of the indigenous population. Population growth was more apparent in the non-indigenous towns and cities, as the population grew 1.27% in comparison to the previous year. Tribe distribution: the Amis Tribe occupied the majority at 36.01%, then the Paiwan Tribe (17.33%), Atayal Tribe (16.50%), Bunun Tribe (10.15%), Toroko Tribe (4.96%), Rukai Tribe (2.36%), Puyuma Tribe (2.30%), and the smallest tribes were the Sakizaya Tribe, at less than 0.07%. Gender:The male and female distribution was 48.74% and 51.26% respectively. In the general public, the gender distribution favors males (50.12% to 49.88%), amongst those 15 and older. Age:The majority were aged 20 to 29 years old (22.23%), then 30 to 39 years old (20.38%), 40 to 49 years old (20.04%), 50 to 59 years old (13.76%), 15 to 19 (12.24%), and then those 60 years old and above (11.21%). Those 65 years of age and above occupy 12.56% of the general population, higher than the 8.01% found in the indigenous population. Education level:The majority of the indigenous population 15 years and older had senior or vocational high school educations (36.05%), then elementary school and below (26.98%), and junior high school (22.85%). When contrasted with the general public, 35.40% of the general public possesses a junior college education or above, while this is true for only 14.12% of the indigenous population. 49.83% of the indigenous population has only had an education of junior high school level or below, while the percentage is only 32.16% in the general public. Comparisons made of recent years have shown similar trends, and this shows that there is a severe gap between the overall education level and quality of the indigenous population and the general public. Marital Status:50.33% were married, 36.10% were single, 6.37% were divorced or separated, and 7.19% had deceased spouses. The marital status of the indigenous population was roughly on par with the general population. Family financial support :64.27% of the indigenous population 15 years and older needed to financially support their families. 35.27% of them were the primary providers, 29.00% were the secondary providers, and 33.96% did not need to support their families financially. Health status: 67.11% of the indigenous population responded that they had good health status (including excellent health), 11.97% had poor health (included extremely unwell), 20.85% said they were of average health, and 0.07% did not respond. Average monthly income, per person:The majority of the indigenous population (28.05%) had no regular income or no income at all. Out of those who did have an income, the majority (18.96%) earned between NT$20,000 and NT$30,000, then 18.87% earned less than NT$10,000, and 18.20% earned between NT$10,000 and NT$20,000. Above NT$30,000, the percentage decreased as the amount of income increased. On average, the monthly income per person in the indigenous population 15 and older was NT$14,742 (median was NT$15,000). The monthly job income for each individual who was employed was NT$23,761, which was NT$3,288 less than the average income in 2007, NT$27,049, with a negative growth of 13.84%. There is a large gap between this and the compensation of those who are employed within the general population (1.53 times). II. Analysis of the Indigenous Labor Force 1. Participation rate in the indigenous labor force was 61.54%, unemployment rate 7.92% As of December 2008, there were a total of 363,103 people in the indigenous population who were 15 years of age, not including those currently serving military duty, imprisoned, or declared missing. Among them, 223,464 people were in the labor force and the participation rate was 61.54%. When compared to the survey results from previous years, the 2008 labor force participation rate for the indigenous population had fallen slightly, by 1.15%, in comparison to the previous year and had come to the lowest point ever. When compared to the general public, the labor force participation rate for the indigenous population was 61.54% or 62.72% (including those currently serving military duty but not those imprisoned or declared missing), which is clearly higher than 58.20% in the general public. Judging from the changes in the trend of previous years, the trend may be that the labor force participation rate in the indigenous population is approaching that of the general population. Out of the indigenous labor force, 205,765 people were employable, and the employment rate was 92.08%. 17,699 people were unemployed, and the unemployment rate was 7.92%. When comparing survey results from previous years, it is seen that unemployment in the indigenous population climbed from 8.15% in March 1999 to 9.83% in March 2001. It then lowered to 8.99% in May 2002 and declined once more from 10.33% in May 2003 to 4.36% in December 2006. In December 2008, it climbed to 7.92% and a sharp increase was seen in comparison to December 2007. 2. Decline of piecemeal workers in the indigenous population Of the employed indigenous population, 22.40% responded by saying that they worked piecemeal jobs. 77.60% did not work piecemeal jobs. The percentage of the indigenous population working piecemeal jobs has gone down from 29.11% in 2007 to 22.40% in 2008. The majority of the indigenous population involved in piecemeal work would like to make the transition over to regular employment (75.28%). 3. 33.08% of the indigenous labor force was willing to attend vocational training 33.08% of the indigenous labor force would like to attend vocational training in the future. 69.92% did not want to participate in vocational training. Out of the indigenous labor force which was willing to attend vocational training in the future, the top five types of vocational training they hoped to attend were in: hostel management, hospitality and service (27.70%), computer and information (22.96%), construction and carpentry (15.33%), cosmetics and hairdressing (14.25%), and horticulture and landscaping (13.97%). 11.53% of the civilian indigenous population had attended vocational training at governmental or private organizations previously. Among them, 55.76% worked in jobs relating to the training, and 44.24% did not. The most common reason that they did not work a related job was that there were "no job opportunities" (36.49%), and "being unable to find jobs relating to the training" (27.23%) came next. 4. 3.81% of the indigenous labor force participated in cooperative education or apprentice programs Only 3.81% of the indigenous labor force has been involved in cooperative education or apprentice programs, and 96.19% does not have such experience. 48.78% of those who attended thought the experienced helped in gaining employment, while the other 45.55% thought it did not help. 5. Nearly 20% (18.58%) of the indigenous labor force possessed skill certifications Nearly 20.00% (18.58%) of the indigenous labor force held skill certification. 64.49% of the indigenous labor force who possessed skill certificates thought certifications were helpful in terms of employability, while 33.41% thought it was not helpful. III. Analysis of the indigenous employment situation 1. Most of the indigenous population was employed in the construction, agriculture, forestry, fishing and animal husbandry, and manufacturing industry Employed indigenes worked most frequently in the Manufacturing (14.03%), then the Construction and agriculture, forestry, fishing and animal husbandry (13.89% and 12.30%, respectively). In comparison to the general public, a higher percentage of the indigenous population was clearly employed in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and animal husbandry industry, construction industry, and other service industries. However, there were far fewer people in the indigenous population working in the manufacturing industry, wholesale and retail industry, and financial and insurance industry percentage-wise, in comparison to the general public. 2. Most of the indigenous population was employed as Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers 20.77% of employed indigenes worked as Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers, 17.25% as Elementary Occupations, and 16.99% as technical workers and related personnel. When compared to the general population, a markedly higher percentage of the indigenous population worked as technical workers and related personnel, machinery operators and assembly workers, non-technical workers and physical laborers, and workers in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and animal husbandry industry. However, percentages were lower in the indigenous population when it came to other occupations such as politicians, administrative supervisors, corporate supervisors and managers, professional workers, technical operators and assistants, and office workers. 3. Most of the indigenous population was employed by the private sector Most employed indigenes worked for the private sector, 74.28%. 11.83% worked independently, 11.42% were employed by the government, 1.58% worked for family members for no compensation, and 0.90% were employers. Out of those employed by the government, 59.84% were not officially qualified civil servants, and 40.16% were. 97.75% of employed indigenes were not members of the indigene cooperatives. Only 0.64% of the employed indigenes worked for indigene cooperatives. 4. 4.41% of the employed indigenes worked in temporary jobs provided by the government Among the employed indigenes who were working paying jobs, 4.41% were employed by the government in temporary work. 24.66% had work periods of 12 months or longer, while 44.69% had work periods of less than 6 months. Out of those who were employed by the government in temporary work, nearly 90% (89.05%) felt that the temporary work aided in improving their lives (22.43% felt it was extremely helpful and 66.62% felt it was helpful). 73.90% of the indigenes employed by the government for temporary work responded that they would stay in aboriginal townships and seek employment when the temporary work ends. 12.55% will stay in metropolitan areas to seek employment, 3.35% will leave aboriginal townships to seek employment in metropolitan areas, and 1.23% will return to aboriginal townships to seek employment. 5. 6.29% of employed indigenes with paying jobs worked temporary jobs at private companies Among the indigenes with paying jobs, 6.29% worked temporary jobs provided by private companies. 49.05% had work periods of 12 months or longer, while 21.43% had work periods of less than six months. Out of those who were employed by private companies in temporary work, 34.56% felt that the temporary work was helpful in aiding to improve their lives (including those who felt it was extremely helpful), whilst 58.85% felt it was not helpful (9.84% felt it didn't really help, and 49.01% felt it did not help at all). 6. Employed indigenes had an average of 43.34 work hours per week 37.58% of employed indigenes worked 35 to 44 hours a week on average, 22.28% worked 55 hours or more weekly, and 19.44% worked 45 to 55 hours. In terms of average work hours overall, employed indigenes worked an average of 43.34 hours weekly. Out of the indigene workers who had fewer than 35 work hours each week, 69.08% would like an increase in work hours. The main reason that they wanted the extra hours was to increase their income and support family finances (83.70%). Apart from those with no income and those without regular income, indigenes with jobs paying less than NT$10,000 had the lowest average work hours (33.06 hours). Those who earned NT$50,000 to NT$60,000 or from NT$40,000 to NT$50,000 worked the most hours on average, 50.85 hours and 50.23 hours respectively. The majority of indigenes worked in Hualien County (17.84%), Taitung County (17.16%), Pingtung County (11.33%), and Taoyuan County (10.39%). A total of 56.72% of indigenes worked in these four counties. 7. Nearly 80% of employed indigenes were satisfied with their work situation 79.43% of employed indigenes were satisfied with their current job situation. The main reason they were not satisfied with their current jobs was because the salary was too low (63.96%). 8. Only 3.39% of employed indigenes have been discriminated against in their work place The majority (96.61%) of indigenes have not been discriminated against in their work places due to their indigenous status, and 3.39% have been discriminated against. 93.46% of employed indigenes have never sustained occupational injuries in the work place, while 6.54% have. 9. 87.56% of employed indigenes have never attended vocational training 87.56% of employed indigenes have never attended vocational training administered by governmental or private organizations, 11.64% have attended, and 0.79% is currently in attendance. Among those who have attended vocational training, 40.47% have never worked jobs relating to the vocational training. The most common reason that they did not work a related job was that there were no job opportunities (38.63%). 30.75% of employed indigenes were willing to participate in vocational training, with the highest percentages in hostel management, hospitality and service (28.34%)and computer and information (23.66%). nearly 20% (19.02%) of employed indigenes possessed skill certification. IV. Analysis of the indigenous unemployment situation The 2008 survey indicated that 205,765 people in the indigenous labor force were employable, and the employment rate was 92.08%. 17,699 people were unemployed, and the unemployment rate was 7.92%. 1. Average length of unemployment for indigenes was 39.75 weeks. Unemployed indigenes, up until the standard period of data, had been unemployed for 39.75 weeks on average. Number of weeks unemployed was especially high in women (43.83 weeks), those higher in age, and those with low education levels who were unemployed. 2. Most unemployed indigenes sought employment through personal relationships, most relied upon family for financial support The main resource unemployed indigenes utilized for their job hunt was asking family, friends, and teachers for recommendations (50.42%). Other common sources were newspaper listings (38.11%), self-recommendation and making inquiries (21.91%), and seeking employment through a governmental employment service organization (including online services) (21.22%). While indigenes were unemployed, their primary source of finances came from family support, as nearly 70% (67.12%) of unemployed indigenes relied upon their families for financial assistance. 23.07% relied on assistance from relatives and friends while 17.80% relied on their savings. During their job search, 29.16% of unemployed indigenes have encountered job opportunities. The main reasons they did not take up these jobs was because the salary was too low (33.58%), working hours were incompatible (24.38%), and that there is little potential for future development (22.60%). 70.08% of unemployed indigenes have not encountered job opportunities during their job search. The main difficulty was that there were no job opportunities within the area they lived (55.44%). Other difficulties included insufficient employment information (26.41%), incompatible skills (21.58%), and age limitations (20.58%). 3. 76.73% of unemployed indigenes left their last job involuntarily 53.75% of unemployed indigenes have been employed in the past year. 76.73% left their previous job involuntarily, while 22.10% left voluntarily. The main reason for leaving their previous job involuntarily was that business was downsizing or shutting down for their work place (63.04%), and that seasonal or temporary work had ended (29.57%). Of those who left their previous job voluntarily, most felt dissatisfied with their existing jobs (34.92%) or it was that business was downsizing or shutting down for their work place (18.32%) 4. The majority of unemployed indigenes hoped to work as Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers, Elementary Occupations, or Craft and Related Trades Workers; 51.49% of unemployed indigenes preferred to work in their hometown or the neighboring regions The jobs most unemployed indigenes hoped to have been in construction work (26.07%), hospitality, travel, and sports (19.99%), and technical services (18.18%). A total of 51.49% of unemployed indigenes hoped to work in their hometowns or neighboring regions. 21.76% of unemployed indigenes hoped to work in metropolitan areas. 66.88% of the unemployed indigenes who hoped to work in their hometowns or neighboring regions felt that there were no job opportunities they wanted in the local region. 5. 95.57% of unemployed indigenes have never applied for employment promotion allowances 95.57% of unemployed indigenes have not applied for any employment promotion allowances. The primary reason that they did not apply was because they did not know about these subsidies (74.41%), and then it was that they did not know how to apply for them (10.21%). 6. Unpaid wages most common problem in wage disputes for unemployed indigenes In unemployed indigenes, nearly 90% (89.72%) have never had disputes over wages. 7.27% said they have had wage disputes, while 3.01% have not had work experience. Out of the unemployed indigenes who have had wage disputes before, most of the disputes stemmed from unpaid wages (67.00%). 7. Unemployed indigenes need employment information and employment assignment the most The highest percent of unemployed indigenes required employment information as an employment service provided by the government (64.14%), then employment assignment (46.26%), and employment consultation (29.58%). 8. A decline in personal income for unemployed indigenes 98.26% of unemployed indigenes have no regular income or no income at all each month. 1.48% earned an income of less than NT$10,000 and 0.26% earned from NT$10,000 to NT$20,000. On average, the monthly income for unemployed indigenes was NT$133, lower than the NT$1,840 of the 2007 survey and far lower than the monthly income of NT$23,599 for employed indigenes. 9. 88.10% of unemployed indigenes had never attended vocational training; 60.17% of unemployed indigenes were willing to attend vocational training 88.10% of unemployed indigenes have never participated in vocational training. Out of the unemployed indigenes who had participated in vocational training, 59.17% had not worked related jobs. The most common reason that they did not work a related job was that there were no job opportunities (43.71%). 60.17% of unemployed indigenes were willing to attend vocational training. The vocational training unemployed indigenes hoped to attend were the hostel management, hospitality and service category (23.87%), and the construction and carpentry category (22.46%). 10. 13.52% of the unemployed indigenes possessed skill certifications 13.52% of the unemployed indigenes held skill certifications, while 86.48% did not. Out of the unemployed indigenes that did possess skill certification, 36.75% thought that certifications were helpful in a job search and 63.25% felt it was not helpful. V. Analysis of the non-labor force situation for indigenes 139,639 people in the indigenous population belonged to the non-labor force in December 2008. The most common reason for not participating in the labor force was that they were pursuing their studies or preparing for further education (31.30%), then that they were elderly, mentally or physically disabled, or sick and unable to work (30.00%), responsible for household chores (29.33%), taking a break (6.23%), and want to work and haven't found a job, but are able to work at any time (2.33%). VI. Analysis of the female indigene labor situation According to data from the Executive Yuan's Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, the labor force participation rate was 49.75% for women in the general population in December 2008. During the same time period, the labor force participation rate was higher in indigenous women at 53.16%. Reasons for not participating in the labor force, listed by frequency, are: being responsible for household chores, studying or preparing for school, and being 65 years or older or mentally/physically disabled. 1. Employment situation for indigenous women The education level of employed indigenous women is lower than that of employed women in the general population. The education level of indigenous women is generally concentrated at senior and vocational high school, junior high school, and elementary school or below. On average, employed indigenous women work 43.13 hours per week, but they earned NT$9,940 less per month than employed women in the general population. Regarding the occupations of employed indigenous women, higher percentages worked as production workers and machinery operators and workers in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and animal husbandry industry than women in the general population. However, a smaller percentage of employed indigenous women worked as technicians and assistant professionals and office workers. 2. Unemployment situation for indigenous women The unemployment rate for indigenous women was 6.63%, 2.22% higher than that of women in the general population (4.41%). They were unemployed for 43.83weeks on average, and most unemployed indigenous women faced difficulties such as a lack of job opportunities, inadequate employment information, and limitations due to education level. The jobs most unemployed indigenous women hoped to have were in housekeeping services and hospitality, travel, and sports. Out of the unemployed indigenous women, 10.81% responded that they had attended vocational training before or were currently attending vocational training. Out of the unemployed indigenous women who had attended vocational training before, 46.08% did not work in jobs related to the vocational training course. The main reason they did not work in related jobs was that there were no job opportunities (36.83%) VII. Tracking and analysis of the labor situation for interviewed indigenes Out of all the indigenes tracked and interviewed, 55.20% had been doing some type of work in the past year, whilst studying was the next most frequent response. Tracking and analysis of employed: Most employed indigenes worked for the private sector. Out of those employed by the government, 41.77% were not officially qualified civil servants. The avrweagr income monthly was NT$23,617. 81.61% of employed indigenes were satisfied with their current job situation. The highest percent of employed indigenes required employment information as an employment service provided by the government, then employment assignment, and employment consultation. Tracking and analysis of unemployed: During their job search, about 70.00% of unemployed indigenes don’t have encountered job opportunities. The main reasons they did not take up these jobs was because the salary was too low, and that there is little potential for future development. The main difficulty of unemployed indigenes was that there were no job opportunities within the area they lived. Other difficulties included incompatible skills, and age limitations. The highest percent of employed indigenes required employment information as an employment service provided by the government, then employment assignment, and employment consultation.
    關聯: 97094
    基礎研究
    委託研究
    研究期間: 9708~9807
    研究經費: 4240 千元
    資料類型: report
    顯示於類別:[社會學系] 研究報告

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