|Abstract: ||新歷史主義指出，歷史基本上是由事件的論述所構成，但卻常常呈現斷層，主要是受到政治權威、社會主流價值及文化意識的影響。法國著名學者傅柯(Michel Foucault)認為，為了添補斷層，人們應透過各種不同角度的論述去還原歷史。換句話說，歷史並不只是對史實的單一性記載，當然也不是單純對過去事件的紀錄；應該跳脫官方的單一性、權威性記載，尋求多元的社會論述。另一方面，法國哲學家德西達(Jacques Derrida)也指出：「沒有文本之外的世界」；語言本身就是一種結構，透過這種結構，人們可以對整個世界再理解，以彌補歷史斷層的事實遺失。因此，文學中的自傳體作品與回憶錄成為研究特定歷史時空的另一種佐證；藉由它們的論述，人們才可能拼貼出各時代完整的社會圖像及文化氛圍，此乃文學的歷史性功能。俄羅斯的自傳體與回憶錄作品起源很早，但仍然受到歐洲文學規範的影響，一直到十八世紀才逐漸發展出自己的獨特形式。俄羅斯傳統的女性作品主要是力圖從父權定義的社會模式中解放出來，以零散的、沒有中心的、不用押韻的、隨興的語言形式，深刻描述女性的生活故事（Domna Stanton 1984:3-20），重新描述女性與「他者」有關（而非分離）的自我，最明顯的就是女性自傳體詩學。二十世紀初的蘇維埃革命改變了俄國的社會圖像及文化氛圍，權威意識及政治迫害充斥整個社會體系；此時期的俄羅斯女性自傳主要以揭發鎮壓者的不公不義為體裁，並以道德行為表達對受迫害者的關心與同情，使崇高的文化與價值得以繼續保存；同時，也持續著反抗男權為中心的話語表述，呈現女性在當時社會追尋自我的艱難歷程。從這段歷史的女性文學來分析，這類女作家的作品大致可歸納為四種類型：革命者、政治犯、文化保護者與自我追尋者。本研究計畫將先蒐集相關學者的論述，進行分析、整理和歸納，建構該議題的理論，包括「自我」與「他者」的相關理論、俄羅斯自傳體書寫傳統與特色、西方與被殖民國家女性自傳體小說的書寫特色…等。其次，再依據相關理論，對各種類型的主要文本範例，進行分析、論述及整合，進一步將其論述投射到歷史的斷層，跨越政治威權，回歸社會真相。|
New Historicists articulate that history is basically understood through its context on the evolution of facts; however, it also shows broken-point in the way of evolution due to interference or distortion by political authority, dominant value system and cultural ideology. According to Foucault’s point of view, it should take an approach both on theory of the limits of collective cultural knowledge and on technique of examining a broad array of documents in order to understand the episteme of a particular time. New Historicism is claimed to be a more neutral approach to historical events, and to be sensitive towards different cultures. In other words, history can hardly be true only by examining the official documents. French philosopher, Jacques Derrida, says that there is no world outside the text of words. Thus, literature is itself a structure of meaning in words, through which people realize the lost fact in history. Obviously it is the historical role of literature to present the integrity of social and cultural pictures in the ages, especially those of autobiography and memoir. Russian autobiographies and memoirs had followed the style of European literature until the 18th century as they cultivated their own style. By the same route, Russian traditional woman literature mainly aimed to be liberated from the social model based on the patriarchy; they tried to re-define the gender relations between women and the other. The poetic of women autobiography is the case in point. Soviet revolution did radically change the Russian society and culture in the early 20th century; events of witch hunt happened. At this period of time, Russian women autobiographies mainly exposed the events with ethos and pathos to fight against the political authorities. In the mean time, they took the literature to display their struggle for self-identification in the man-dominant society. Russian women’s autobiographies and memoirs in the 20th century can be classified into four categories: those of woman revolutionist, of prisoner, of cultural conservator and of self-pursuer. This research project will first probe various points of view from different scholars, then analyze and organize them to construct a theoretical framework, exploiting the theory of "self" and "the other", the tradition of Russia autobiographical writings and their characteristics. Also it will deal with the characteristics of women's autobiographies in the West concerning post-colonialist scenario and etc. Secondly, this research will analyze the contexts of women’s autobiographies and memoirs of different genres based on the related theories. Finally, this research intends to span political authoritative narration and to reveal the truth of history in that period of time.