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    題名: 1991年後印度孟買都會地區由種姓至階級的轉變
    The Change from Caste to Class in Urban Area of Mumbai, India after 1991
    作者: 李青璇
    Lee, Chingh Suan
    貢獻者: 孫善豪
    Sun, Shan Hao
    李青璇
    Lee, Chingh Suan
    關鍵詞: 階級
    種姓
    孟買
    class
    caste
    Mumbai
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2013-07-23 13:38:04 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 印度自古以來有以人的血統微分類標準的階級制度,一般稱為種姓制度,這種制度由古典瓦爾納與迦提系統構成。這種制度可以挑戰嗎?印度自1991年後國內資訊傳遞與資本流通速度大於以往的情況下,處於越來越國際化的孟買都會地區的印度居民對於傳統的種姓制度有何看法?以「職業」為標準的階級體系是否超越傳統以「血統」為標準的價值呢?

    在本研究中,可以看到在都會地區的印度人不論在資訊取得、工作、婚姻三方面的生活情狀中,古典瓦爾納與迦提系統並非最重要的。於資訊的取得方面,高低種姓幾乎沒有任何差別。關於Srinivas所提出的「梵化」於這些人的狀況沒有詮釋能力;在教育方面,雖然原始屬於高種姓者的教育程度仍比低種姓者高,但低種姓者的教育程度與其父執輩相比有顯著的提高。種姓間學歷的絕對流動已經發生,相對流動很可能在孟買也已經發生;在工作方面,表現出工作取得與種姓、工作內容與種姓沒有深刻的關係。於孟買都會地區個人的最高學歷與專長較種姓階層更重要;婚姻的選擇上,對於傳統的安排有著排斥。選擇對象的來源與管道並非單一,金錢與感情基礎的考慮比血緣的考慮更多。受訪談者中已經發生違反傳統的婚姻。

    本研究顯示: 孟買都會區的人士並沒有依循古典瓦爾納制度生活,反而已經有不符合內婚制的情況發生: 職業與父輩並不相同、追求歐美式的生活且生活習慣日趨相近。因此,不論是維持古典瓦爾納制度或是迦提制度的職業限制或是血統限制於孟買都會區的約束力都大幅減弱。相反地,與個人教育程度、職業選擇、經濟能力有深度鏈結的階級制度,正在孟買都會區成形。
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    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    政治研究所
    98252012
    101
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