This study examined the goodness of fit of three alternative models of self-monitoring to data collected in five cultures (two individualistic and three collectivistic cultures) and the influence of individualism-collectivism on self-monitoring. It was predicted that the 18-item unidimensional self-monitoring scale is the best fit among the three and individualistic cultures exhibit higher self-monitoring than collectivistic cultures. Data were collected from respondents in the United States, Australia (individualistic cultures) and Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan (collectivistic cultures). Results supported the predictions. The data suggest, however, that it is necessary to develop self-monitoring measures which are sensitive across cultures.