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    Title: 台灣代表性官僚分析:以2008台灣政府文官意見調查為例
    Other Titles: Representative Bureaucracy in Taiwan: A Case Study of the TGBS
    Authors: 蔡秀涓
    Hsiu - Chuan, Tsai
    林宗憲
    Tsung - Hsien, Lin
    Keywords: 代表性官僚;民主政治;民主治理;威權體制;性別;年齡;籍貫;政黨認同;2008台灣政府文官調查;台灣社會變遷調查
    representative bureaucracy;bureaucrat;democratic governance;democracy;authoritarian;TGBS;social change;gender;paternal birthplace;political party identification
    Date: 2010-12-18
    Issue Date: 2015-12-25 11:36:17 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文以代表性官僚理論(representative bureaucracy)為分析架構,以「2008 台灣政府文官調查」(TGBS),以及「2008台灣社會變遷基本調查第五期第四次」兩項資料庫,分別做為台灣文官與社會人口之代表,分析台灣文官在性別、年齡、自己與父親教育程度、父母親籍貫、政黨與藍綠政治立場認同等幾項重要人口變項之社會代表性,並討論研究相關研究發現與台灣民主治理之關係。 研究發現,台灣文官在以上各變項的消極代表性,都與總體社會人口結構呈現顯著差異。具體而言呈現:女性代表性不足;文官教育程度非常明顯高於社會人口的學歷分佈(文官父親亦同);年齡層高於社會大眾;外省籍文官在政府部門呈現高度代表,其餘族群則代表性不足,尤其以原住民族為甚;整體文官呈現國民黨認同較高與泛藍特質。 本文結論與相關研究一致顯示,台灣文官之所以呈現以上特色,與威權統治時期諸多人事政策有關,這些人事政策雖然隨著民主化已逐步調整,但已造成台灣文官代表性與其服務對象之口結構有明顯差異,這種現象對於台灣民主治理潛藏挑戰因子。因此,本文最後建議,人事主管機關應該更加地注意此一現象及產生之影響,並且應採取更積極的多樣化人事甄補政策與相關機制,以使台灣文官消極代表性與社會人口結構差異不再持續擴大進而逐漸縮小。此外,學界亦應進一步探討台灣文官消極代表性與積極代表性之間的關係。
    One very important function of representative bureaucracy is to answer the question, “Why does the social background of public administrators matter?”, as posed by J. Dlan and D. H. Rosenbloom in their book Representative Bureaucracy” in 2005. One answer to this question was provided by J. Donald Kinglsey—though he was writing in 1941. Kingsley submitted, “…bureaucracies, to be democratic, must be representative of the groups they serve.” Over the past four decades, research into representative bureaucracy in western academia has made important progress in measuring passive representation and highlighting the positive linkage of passive and active representation. In Taiwan, most studies in this area have focused on demographic variables such as race and gender. These studies have demonstrated that the passive representation of indigenous peoples and females in bureaucracies is insufficient. Although these studies have illuminated the concept of passive representation in both theoretical and pragmatic ways, very little is still known about the relation between bureaucratic representation and the democratic governance of Taiwan. This paper employs the theory of representative bureaucracy to compare the demographic variables of bureaucrats and the populace of Taiwan. We choose gender, education, paternal birthplace, political party identification as variables. Using data from the 2008 Taiwan Government Bureaucrats Survey (2008 TGBS), and the Taiwan Social Change Survey 2008, Phase 5, wave 4, this paper finds that the demographic structure of Taiwanese bureaucrats and the Taiwanese public are significantly inconsistent. This study reveals that: 1) public personnel policies of the authoritarian government established by the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1945-1986 in Taiwan yielded a bureaucracy in which passive representation was not compatible with the nation’s demographics; 2) a demographically diverse public sector workforce in Taiwan that reflects the interests of all social groups may lead to better democratic governance; and 3) more studies of the linkage of passive and active representation in different policy fields in Taiwan should be promoted.
    Relation: 「循證調查與文官制度研究:理論與實務」學術研討會
    主辦單位:國立政治大學公共行政學系
    舉辦日期:2010.12.18
    Data Type: conference
    Appears in Collections:[2010「循證調查與文官制度研究:理論與實務」學術研討會] 會議論文

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