A Study on Junior High School English Teachers' Beliefs in Multiple Assessments
|上傳時間: ||2016-05-06 17:07:06 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: ||本研究旨在探討多元化評量在國中英語科實施之情況。教育部於民國93年所提出之「國民小學及國民中學學生成績評量準則」提及，學生的成績評量可參酌建議之十二項評量評定之。本研究藉由問卷設計及訪談的方式進行，旨在了解目前國中英語科老師對多元評量功能的信念，常使用之評量方式，以及評量最常遭遇之困難。其中問卷調查是匯集143位台北市公立國中英語科教師之意見，以統計軟體SPSS 10.0進行敘述性統計、獨立樣本t考驗、單因子變異數分析與薛費法事後分析，並訪談其中5位自願受訪的老師，以質性資料補充說明，獲得結果簡述如下：
The study aims to investigate the implementation of multiple assessments (MA) in the English classes in junior high schools. The MOE proposed the Guidelines of Assessments for Elementary and Junior High School Students in 2004, suggesting 12 modes to evaluate students’ performances. The researcher endeavored to find out junior high school English teachers’ beliefs in MA, the assessments practiced most often in class, and the difficulties hindering teachers in employment. Both questionnaire and interview were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from 143 English teachers in public junior high schools in Taipei City. Statistic computerization, including descriptive statistics, the independent sample t-test, and ANOVA with Scheffe as the post hoc test if needed, were analyzed, and the findings were presented briefly as follows:
1. In general, junior high school English teachers hold a positive attitude toward the functions of MA;
2. The most common used assessments, in order, are: paper-and-pencil tests, homework, and oral tests; teachers with different seniority reflect significantly different choices of MA in use;
3. In applying MA in class, junior high school English teachers are most hampered by the divergent levels of students in the same class, the large class sizes, and a time consuming; the variables, such as gender, seniority, and workshop-attendance, make significant difference when teachers are encountered with different difficulties in applying MA in class.
Finally, based on the findings in this study, some suggestions were made for educational authorities concerned to develop a more mature environment for practicing MA in the future.
|參考文獻: ||Airasian, P. W. (2000). Assessment in the classroom: A concise approach (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Allison, D. (1999). Language testing and evaluation: An introductory course. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple intelligences in the classroom (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bailey, K. M. (1998). Learning about language assessment: Dilemmas, decisions, and directions. London: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Ballangyne, R., Hughes, K., & Mylonas, A. (2002). Developing procedures for implementing peer assessment in large classes using an action research process. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 27(5), 427-441.
Barcelos, A. M. F. (2000). Understanding teachers’ and students’ language learning beliefs in experience: a Deweyan approach. Doctoral dissertation, the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.
Barron, N. (1971). Sex-typed language: the production of grammatical cases. Acta Sociologica, 14(1), 24-42.
Bauch, P. A. (1984). The impact of teachers’ instructional beliefs on their teaching: implications for research and practice. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED252954)
Bellanca, J., Chapman, C., & Swartz, E. (1997). Multiple assessments for multiple intelligences (3rd ed). Arlington Heights, IL: IRI/SkyLight Training and Publishing, Inc.
Blanche, P., & Merino, B. J. (1989). Self-assessment of foreign-language skills: Implications for teachers and researchers. Language Learning, 39(3), 313-340.
Borich, G., & Kubiszyn T. (2003). Educational testing and measurement. New York : J. Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Bradshaw, J., & Amundson, K. J. (1985). Homework helping students achieve. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED266526)
Broadfoot, P. (1996). Assessment and learning: Power or partnership? In Goldstein, H., & Lewis, T. (Eds.). Assessment: Problems, developments and statistical issues (pp. 21-40). New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brousseau, B. A., Book, C., & Byers, J. L. (1988). Teacher beliefs and the culture of teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 39(6), 33-39.
Brown, J. D. (1995). The elements of language curriculum. New York: Heinle & Heinle.
Butler, J. (1992). Teacher professional development: An Australian case study. Journal of Education for Teaching, 8(3), 221-238.
Calderhead, J., & Shorrock, S. B. (1997). Understanding teacher education. London: Falmer Press.
Chen, H. M. (2003). A study of primary school English teachers' beliefs and practices in multiple assessments: A case study in Taipei City. Master’s thesis, National Taipei Teachers’ College, Taipei, Taiwan.
Chien, H. C. (2004). A study on the differences of English teaching in urban and rural elementary schools. Master’s thesis, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Clark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teachers’ thought processes. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 255-269). New York: Macmillan.
Cohen, A. D. (1994). Assessing language ability in the classroom (2nd ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Cole, D. J., Ryan, C. W., & Kick, F. (1995). Portfolios across the curriculum and beyond. Thousand oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Connors, N. A. (1991). Homework: a new direction. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.
Cooper, H. (1989). Synthesis of research on homework. Educational Leadership, 47(3), 85-91.
Cooper, H. (1994). The battle over homework: an administration’s guide to setting sound and effective policies. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED376573)
Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62.
Courtney, A. M., & Abodeeb, T. L. (1999). Diagnostic-reflections portfolios. The Reading Teacher, 52(7), 708-714.
Department of Education of Taipei City Government (2006, June 14). 國民中學歷年校數及班級數. Retrieved June 30, 2006, from http://www.edunet.taipei.gov.tw/public/pub2_content.asp?SEQ=5568
Department of Education of Taipei City Government (2006, June 14). 國民中學94學年度教師主要任教領域統計. Retrieved June 30, 2006, from http://www.edunet.taipei.gov.tw/public/pub2_content.asp?SEQ=5574
Doyle, M. (1997). Beyond life history as a student: Preservice teachers beliefs about teaching and learning. College Student Journal, 31(4), 519-531.
Freeman, D. J., & The Undergraduate Program Evaluation Committee. (1982). Michigan State University educational beliefs inventory. East Lansing, Michigan: Office of Program Evaluation, College of Education.
Fulcher, G. (1997). The testing of speaking in a second language. In Clapham, C., & Corson, D. (Eds.), Language testing and assessment (pp. 75-85). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basicbooks.
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.
Genesee, F., & Upshur, J. A. (2003). Classroom-based evaluation in second language education (7th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goldstein, H., & Lewis, T. (1996). The scope of assessment. In Goldstein, H., & Lewis, T. (Eds.), Assessment: Problems, developments and statistical issues (pp.1-8). New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gredler, M. E. (1999). Classroom assessment and learning. New York: Longman.
Guo, F. M. (2005). A Case Study on How an Elementary School English Teacher Implements Multiple Assessments in her Classroom. Master’s thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Hancock, C. R. (1994). Teaching, testing, and assessing: Making the connection. Northeast Conference Reports. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook, Co.
Hsieh, H. J. (2002). Teachers’ beliefs about EFL learning: A study of elementary school English teachers in Taipei City. Master’s thesis, National Taipei Teachers’ College, Taipei, Taiwan.
Hsu, Y. K. (2003). Researching multiple assessment: Evidence from EFL elementary school classroom. English Teaching & Learning, 28(1), 29-60.
Jamentz, J. (1994). Making sure that assessment improves performance. Educational leadership, 52(6), 55-57.
Jenson, R. W., Sheridan, M. S., Olmpia, D., &Andrews, D. (1984). Homework and students with learning disabilities and behavior disorders: a practical, parent-based approach. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27(9), 538-548.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2002). Meaningful assessment: A manageable and cooperative process. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implication of research on teacher belief. Educational Psychologist, 28(1), 65-90.
Kennedy, C., & Kennedy, J. (1996). Attitudes and change implementation. System, 24(3), 351-360.
Kilgore, K., Ross, D., & Zbikowski, J. (1990). Understanding the teaching perspectives of first-year teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1), 28-38.
Kubiszyn, T., & Borich, G. (2003). Educational testing and measurement: Classroom application and practice (7th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
LaConte, R. T. (1981). Homework as a learning experience: What research says to the teacher? Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Lazear, D. G. (1999). Multiple Intelligence Approaches to Assessment: Solving the Assessment Conundrum. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press.
Lee, J. F., & Pruitt, K. W. (1979). Homework assignment: Classroom games for teaching tools. Clearing House, 53, 31-35.
Lee, S. J. (2003). Gender studies and foreign language education. In Department of Applied English, Ming Chuan University (Eds.), the Proceedings of 2003 International Conference and Workshop on TEFL and Applied Linguistics (pp. 224-228). Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Limoges, N. G. (1987). The perceptions and attitudes of teachers, parents, and students regarding the assignment of practice, preparation, and extension homework for high school students. doctoral dissertation, Boston College, MA.
Lin, B. Y. (2000). Multiple Intelligences Theory and English Language Teaching. In English Department, National Cheng-chi University (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2000 NCCU Teachers’ Conference on Linguistics Research (pp. 212-227). Taipei: National Cheng-chi University.
Linn, R. L., & Gronlund, N. E. (1995). Measurement and assessment in teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
Lowe, P. Jr., & Liskin-Gasparro, J. E. (1982). Testing speaking proficiency: The oral interview. Q & A. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 232483)
Lu, W. X (2004). A study on the current implementation of the multiple assessments in junior high school—the public junior high schools in Chia-yi County. Master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
MacBeath, J., & Turner, M. (1991). Learning out of school: Homework policy and practice. A Research Study commissioned by the Scottish Education Department. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 361089)
Martinez, C. (2000). Constructing meaning: A study of a teacher’s educational beliefs and literacy practices in a first grade bilingual classroom. Doctoral dissertation, University of California.
McNamara, T. F. (2000). Language testing. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mead, N. A. & Rubin, D. L. (1985). Assessing listening and speaking skills. Eric Digest. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED263626)
Meisels, S. J. (2000). On the side of the child. Young children, 55(6), 16-19.
Milton, J. (1991). Self and peer assessment. Retrieved September 21, 2006, from http://www.lts.rmit.edu.au/renewal/assess/faq2.htm
MOE (2003). General guidelines of grade 1-9 curriculum of elementary and junior high school education. Retrieved August 30, 2005, from http://www.edu.tw/EDU_WEB/EDU_MGT/EJE/EDU5147002/9CC/9CC.html?open
MOE (2004). 國民小學及國民中學學生成績評量準則. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://law.moj.gov.tw/Scripts/Query4A.asp?FullDoc=all&Fcode= H0070019
Nespor, J. (1987). The role of belief in the practice of teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 19(4), 317-328.
Nolet, V. (1992). Classroom-based measurement and portfolio assessment. Diagnostique, 18(1), 5-26.
Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. New York: Cambridge University Press
O’Donnell, A., & Topping, K. (1998). Peers assessing peers: Possibilities and problems. In Topping, K., & Ehly, S. (Eds.), Peer-assisted learning (pp. 255-278). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332.
Paschal, R. A., Weinstein, T., & Walberg, H. (1984). The effect of homework on learning: a quantitative synthesis. Journal of Educational Research, 78, 97-104.
Paulson, F. L., Paulson, P. R., & Meyer, C. A. (1991). What makes a portfolio a portfolio? Educational Leadership, 48(5), 60-63.
Payne, D. A. (2003). Applied educational assessment (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
Popham, W. J. (1995). Classroom assessment. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Popham, W. J. (1999). Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Richards, J. C. (1994). The sources of language teachers’ instructional decisions. In Alatis, J. E. (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1994, (pp. 384-402). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (1996). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rios, F. A. (1996). Teacher thinking in the cultural contexts. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Rubin, D. L & Mead, N. A. (1984). Large scale assessment of oral communication skills: Kindergarten through grade 12. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 245293)
Salvia, J. (1998). Assessment (7th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Seliger, H. W. (1989). Second language research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Short, D. J. (1993). Assessing integrated language and content instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 627-656.
Silver, H. F., Strong, R. W., & Perini, M. J. (2000). So each may learn: integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Sluijsmans, D. M., Brand-Gruwel, S., & van Merrienboer, J. G. (2002). Peer assessment training in teacher education: Effects on performance and perceptions. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 27(5), 443-454.
Tierney, R. J. (1998). Literacy assessment reform: Shifting beliefs, principled possibilities, and emerging practices. The Reading Teacher, 51(5), 374-390.
Tierney, R. J., Carter, M. A., & Desai, L. E. (1991). Portfolio assessment in the reading-writing classroom. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon.
Tombari, M., & Borich, G. (1999). Authentic assessment in the classroom: Application and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Tomlinson, B. (2005). Testing to learn: A personal view of language testing. ELT Journal, 59(1), 39-46.
Topping, K. J., Smith, E. F., Swanson, I., & Elliot, A. (2000). Formative peer assessment of academic writing between postgraduate students. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 25(2), 149-169.
Tsay, T. L. (2004). The study of the relationships between school administrative support, the degree of teachers’ understanding nine-year integrated curriculum, and job stress in the elementary schools—Changhua Country as an example. Master’s thesis, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Tsui, A. B. M. (2003). Understanding expertise in teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Underhill, N. (1987). Testing spoken language: A handbook of oral testing techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Valencia, S. W. (1990). A portfolio approach to classroom reading assessment: the whys, whats, and how. The Reading Teacher, 43(4), 338-340.
Wallinger, L. M. (2000). The role of homework in foreign language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 483-497.
Walsh, W. B., & Betz, N. E. (1995). Tests and assessment (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ward, A., & Murray-ward, M. (1999). Assessment in the classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Weir, C. J. (1993). Understanding and developing language tests. Hemel Hempstead, UK: Prentice Hall International.
Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi Delta Kappa, 70(9), 703-713.
Wolf, D. P. (1989). Portfolio assessment: Sampling students work. Educational Leadership, 46(7), 35-39.
Woods, D. (1996). Teacher cognition in language teaching: Beliefs, decision-making, and classroom practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wu, S. R. (2003). A critical analysis of qualitative research on second language teachers’ belief and knowledge. Selected Papers from the Twelfth International Symposium on English Teaching, vol. 2, (pp. 171-181). Taipei: Crane.