Topic Prominence: Taiwanese EFL Learner's Interlanguage
Lai, Xiao lin
|上傳時間: ||2016-05-09 13:31:53 (UTC+8)|
With regard to language typology, Mandarin Chinese has been considered a topic-prominent language while English a subject-prominent language (Li & Thompson & Thomson 1976, Rutherford, 1983, et al.) The present study explored Taiwanese EFL learners’ interlanguage from the perspective of typological transfer; it investigated the influence of first language (L1) topic-prominence typology on the transfer effect and the acquisition of L2 subject-prominence. Seventy-eight vocational high school students in Taipei County participated in the experiment and were further divided into three proficiency groups. Three tasks used to measure learners’ L2 interlanguage were a grammaticality judgment task, a translation task, and a free writing task. The tasks were designed on structures where L1 and L2 contrast typologically including four topic-prominence properties: null subject and null object, topicalized verb phrase and clause, serial verb construction, double nominatives and two subject-prominence properties: subject-verb agreement and dummy subject. Both quantitative and qualitative results showed that topic-prominence has been transferred into learners’ interlanguage; also, learners were found to have difficulty acquiring subject-prominence properties. Besides, it was discovered that as learners’ proficiency increases, there is a gradual decrease of topic-prominence and a relative development of subject-prominence. Pearson Correlation Coefficients indicated that the two linguistic typologies exert a high degree of correlation in learners’ interlanguage development. Finally, methodological effect was found in that, of the two controlled tasks, comprehension task was harder than the production task. Free writing task did not lead a significant group difference as the other tasks did. Also, different task formats changed the trend of topic-prominence transfer.
|參考文獻: ||Bao, Z. M., & Lye, H. M. (2005 ). Systematic transfer, topic Prominence, and the bare conditional in Singapore English. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 20(2), 269-291.
Carter, R. (1990). Knowledge about language. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Celce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL / EFL teacher's course (2nd ed.). Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.
Chafe, W. L. (1976). Giveness, contrastiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics, and point of view In C. N. Li (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 25-55). New York Academic Press.
Chan, A. Y. W. (2004a). Noun phrases in Chinese and English: A study of English structural problems encountered by Chinese ESL students in Hong Kong. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 17(1), 33-47.
Chan, A. Y. W. (2004b). Syntactic transfer: Evidence from interlanguage of Hong Kong ESL Learners. The Modern Language Journal 88, 56-74.
Chao, Y. R. (1968). A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Chen, C. Y., & Huang, H. Y. (2002). L2 acquisition of subject-prominence by EFL students in Taiwan. English Teaching and Learning, 27(4), 99-122.
Chen, C. Y., & Shi, M. L. (1999). A note on NP-topics in second language acquisition of Chinese. Studies in English Literature and Linguistics, 25, 133-157.
Chen, F. J. (2006). Contrastive research and crosslinguistic influence: Some implications for teaching Chinese and English as a second language (Revised ed.). Taipei: Crane.
Chen, M., Y. (2005). English prototyped small clauses in the interlangauge of Chinese/ Taiwanese adult learners Second language Research, 21(1), 1-33.
Chou, M. J. (2005). The overuse of English existential constructions by EFL college learners in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tamkang University.
Corder, S. P. (1967). Significance of errors. IRAL, V(4), 161-170.
Corder, S. P. (1978). Language-learner language. In J. Richards (Ed.), Understanding second and foreign learning: Issues and approaches. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Dulay, H., & Burt, M. (1974). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning, 24, 37-53.
Ellis, R. (1991). Grammaticality judgments and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 161-186.
Flynn, S. (1989). The Role of the head-Initial/ head-Final parameter in the acquisition of English relative clauses by adult Spanish and Japanese speakers In S. M. Gass & J. Schachter (Eds.), Linguistics perspectives on second language acquisition (pp. 89-108). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fuller, J. W., & Gundel, J. K. (1987). Topic-prominence in interlanguage. Language Learning, 37(1), 1-17.
Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (1992). Language transfer in language learning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2001). Second language acquisition: an introductory course Mahwah,NJ: Lawrence Erblaum Associates.
Givon, T. (1979). From discourse to syntax: Grammar as a processing strategy In T. Givon (Ed.), Syntax and semantics (Vol. 12, pp. 81-112). New York: Academic Press.
Givon, T. (1983). Topic continuity in discourse: A quantitative cross-language study. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Givon, T. (1993). English grammar: a function-based introduction. Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins.
Green, C. (1991). Typological transfer, discourse accent, and the Chinese writer of English. Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 4, 51-63.
Green, C. (1996). The origins and effects of topic-prominence in Chinese-
English interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics in, 34(2), 119–135.
Heubner, T. (1983). A longitudinal analysis of the acquisition of English. Ann Arbor, MI: Koronma.
Huang, C.-T. J. (1984a). On the distribution and reference of empty pronouns. Linguistics Inquiry, 15, 531-544.
Huang, C.-T. J. (1984b). On the Typology of Zero Anaphora. Language Research, 20(2), 85-105.
Huang, L. H. (2003). Topic-comment structures in Chinese EFL Learners' interlanguage. Unpublished master's thesis, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Hughes, R. (1996). English in speech and writing: Investigating language and literature. Trowbridge, Wiltshire: Redwood Books.
Jacobs, R. A. (1995). English syntax: A grammar for English language professionals. England Oxford University Press.
Jin, H. G. (1994). Topic-prominence and subject-prominence in L2 acquisition:
Evidence of English-to-Chinese typological transfer. Language Learning, 44(1), 101-122.
Jordens, P. (1995). Prominence in applied linguistics. In E. Lynn, L. Selinker & M. S. Smith (Eds.), The current state of interlanguage: Studies in honor of William E. Rutherford (pp. 11-16). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Jung, E. H. (2004). Topic and subject prominence in interlanguage develpment. Language learning, 54(4), 713-738.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. London: Longman.
Li, C. N., & Thompson, S. A. (1976). Subject and topic: A new typology of
language. In C. Li (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 457–489). New York: Academic Press.
Li, C. N., & Thompson, S. A. (1979). Third person pronouns and zero anaphora in Chinese discourse. In T. Givon (Ed.), Syntax and semantics (Vol. 12). New York: Academic Press.
Li, C. N., & Thompson, S. A. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California press.
Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer: Cross linguistic influence in Language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Oshita, H. (2004). Is there anything there when there is not there? Null expletives and second language data. Second Language Research, 20(2), 95-130.
Ou, R. H.-C. (1998). An experimental study of the pro-drop parameter in adult second language acquisition. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Perera, K. (1990). Grammatical difference between speech and writing in Children aged 8 to 12. In R. Carter (Ed.), Knowledge about language and the curriculum: the LINC reader (pp. 217-233). London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Rutherford, W. (1983). Language typology and language transfer. In S. M. Gass & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 358–470). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Sasaki, M. (1990). Topic prominence in Japanese EFL students’ existential
constructions. Language Learning, 40(3), 337-368.
Tao, L., & Healy, A. F. (2005). Zero anaphora: Transfer or reference tracking strategies from Chinese to English. Journal of Psycholinguistics Research 34(2), 99-131.
Tsao, F. (1979). A functional study of topic in Chinese: the first step towards discourse
analysis. Taipei: Student Book Co.
Tsao, F. (1986). <對比分析與錯誤分析-以中英文句子總體結構的異同為例談兩者的關係>，《英語教學》12(2), 46-53, 12(3), 37-49
Tsao, F. (1990). Sentence and clause structure in Chinese: A functional perspective.
Taipei: Student Book Co.
Wen, W., & Wu, B. (1997). Pro-drop and foreign language acquisition. English teaching and learning, 21(3), 65-78.
Wu, C. L. (2004). Morphological uniformity principle and null subject parameter: second language acquisition in young Mandarin-speaking learners. Unpublished master's thesis. National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Xiao, Y. (2002). The syntactic development of school-age Chinese-speaking
children learning English. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 40, 235-271.
Xie, T. (1992). Topic-controlled deletion in topic chains in Chinese: a comparison
between native speakers and foreign language learners. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 27(3), 22-31.
Yip, V. (1995). Interlanguage and learnability: From Chinese to English.
Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Yip, V., & Matthews, S. (1995). I-interlanguage and typology: The case of
topic-prominence. In E. Lynn, L. Selinker & M. S. Smith (Eds.), The current
state of interlanguage (pp. 17–30). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Yip, V., & Stephen, M. (2000). Syntactic transfer in Cantonese-English bilingual child
Bilingualism : Language and Cognition, 3(3), 193-208.
Yuan, B. (1995). Acquisition of base-generated topics by English-speaking learners of Chinese. Language Learning, 45(4), 567-603.
Yuan, B. (1997). Asymmetry of null subjects and null objects in Chinese speakers' L2
English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19, 467-497.