An Analysis of the Reading Comprehension Test Given in the English Subject Ability Test in Taiwan and Its Pedagogical Implications
Lu, Jen Ju
Mo, Chien Ching
Lu, Jen Ju
|上傳時間: ||2016-05-09 16:58:26 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: || 本研究旨在分析探討台灣學科能力英文閱讀測驗之試題，以期了解閱讀測驗試題的內容並掌握考題趨勢。同時，本研究希望對英文閱讀教師能有很大的啟示作用，並對學生提供準備英文學科能力測驗的方針。
The purpose of this study is to present the results of a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of the reading comprehension test items on the 1995-2002 English Subject Ability Test. Specifically, this study aims to promote a better understanding of the content and construct domain of the reading comprehension section and the current tendencies in the English SAT. This study also serves as a practical guide for teachers to English reading instruction and to testing preparation courses.
This study adopts both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The qualitative analysis is done by examining question types, text material, test items, test variables, the examinee's performance, etc. The quantitative analysis is done by computing the discriminatory power, the passing rate, the frequency distribution of the question type, the correlations between question types, etc.
The results of this study are summarized as follows. (1) The frequency distribution of the question type has been analyzed. (2) The comparison of proficient and less proficient examinees' performance on each question type has been made. (3) The test variables accounting for examinees’ performance have been found. (4) Difficulties in reading comprehension and in test-taking process have been identified. (5) Some significant pedagogical implications have been drawn. In sum, this study has some pedagogical implications for high school English teachers and indicates a direction to steer English reading instruction in Taiwan senior high schools.
|參考文獻: ||Adams, W. & Brody, J. (1983). Reading beyond words. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Alderson, C., Clapham, C. & Wall, D. (1995). Language test construction and evaluation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bachman, L. F. (2000). Modern language testing at the turn of the century: Assuring that what we count counts. Language Testing, 17(1), 1-27.
Baker, D. (1989). Language testing: A critical survey and practical guide. London: Edward Arnold.
Bauman, J. (1982). Linguistic structure and the validity of reading comprehension test. (Report No. NLE-G-80-0149). Washington DC: National Institute of Education. (ERIC No. ED 218 950).
Berman, R. A. (1984). Syntactic components of the foreign language reading process. In Alderson, J. C. & Urquhart, A. H. (Eds.), Reading in a foreign language (p.139-159). London: Longman Group.
Brown, J. D. (1996). Testing in language programs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Burmeister, L. E. (1978). Reading strategies for middle and secondary school teachers. Reading Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
Burton, R. D. (1978). Testing reading comprehension. English Teaching Forum, 16(3), 17-19.
Carrell, P. L. & Eisterhold, J. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly 17, 553-573.
Carrell, P. L. (1985). Facilitating ESL reading by teaching text structure. TESOL Quarterly, 19(4), 727-752.
Carrell, P. L. (1988a). Some causes of text-boundedness and schema interference in ESL reading. In Carrell, P. L., Devine, J. & Esdey, D. (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (p.101-113). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carrell, P. L. (1988b). Interactive text processing: Implications for ESL/second language reading classrooms. In Carrell, P. L., Devine, J. and Esdey, D.(Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (p. 239-259). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carver, D. (1978). Reading comprehension: Is there such a thing? English Language Teaching, 32(4), 291-97.
Carver, R. P. (1992). What do standardized tests of reading comprehension measure in terms of efficiency, accuracy and rate? Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 347-359.
Chang, Wu-chang, Chen, Kun-tien, Sh, Cha-lin, Huang, Chi, Ku, Ying-hsiu, Wang, Chuan-so & Chang, Shu-ying. (1995). An English vocabulary list with frequency counts for high school students. Taipei: CEEC.
Chapelle, C., Grabe, W., & Berns, M. (1997). Communicative language proficiency: Definition and Implications for TOEFL 2000. (TOEFL Monograph Series, MS-10) Princeton, NJ:ETS.
Chen, Kun-tien. (1995). An item analysis of the 1995 English Subject Ability Test. Taipei: CEEC.
Coady, J. (1979). A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In Ronald Hackay, Bruce Brakeman, and R. R. Jordan (Eds.), In reading in a second language (p.5-12). Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies and process in test taking and SLA. In L. F. Bachman and A. D. Cohen (Eds.), Interfaces between second language acquisition and language testing research (p. 90-111). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, A., Glasman, H., Phyllis, R., Rosenbaum-Cohen, R., Ferrara, J.& Fine, J. (1979). Reading English for specialized purposes: Discourse analysis and the use of students informants. TESOL Quarterly, 13(4), 551-564.
Colce-Murcia, M. & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and context in language teaching: A guide for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cummings, O. W. (1982). Defferential measurement of reading comprehension skills for students with discrepant subskill profiles. Journal of Education Measurement, 19(1), 59-66.
Davies, A. (1990). Principles of language test. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Devine, J. (1988). The relationship between general language competence and second language reading proficiency: Implications for teaching. In Carrell, P. L., Devine, J., & Esdey, D. E. (Eds.), Interactive approaches to Second Language reading (p. 260-277). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dewitz, P., Carr, E., & Patberg, J. (1987). Effects of inference training on comprehension and comprehension monitoring. Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 99-119.
Dillner, H. M., & Olson, J. P. (1982). Personalizing reading instruction in middle, junior, and senior high schools: utilizing a competency-based instructional system. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.
Dubin, F., Eskey, D. E. & Grabe, W. (1986). Teaching second language reading for a cademic purposes. Reading, Mass: Addison-wesley.
Earl, H., Cheek, J. & Martha, L. C. (1983). Reading instruction through content teaching. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Enright, M., Grabe, W. Koda, K., Mosenthal, P., Mulcahy-Ernt, P. & Schedl, M. (1999). TOEFL 2000 reading framework: A working paper. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Eskey, D. E. (1988). Holding in the bottom: an interactive approach to the language problems of second language readers. In Carrell, P. L., Devine, J. and Esdey, D.(Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (p. 93-100). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Farr, R., Pritchard, R. & Smitten, B. (1990). A description of what happens when an examinee takes a multiple-choice reading comprehension test. Journal of Educational Measurement, 27(3), 209-226.
Fillmore, C., & Kay, P. (1983). Text semantic analysis of reading comprehension: Final report. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Institute of Human Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 238 903).
Foote, T.A. (1976). The reading skills test. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
Freedle, R. & Kostin, I. (1993). The prediction of TOEFL reading comprehension item difficulty for expository prose passage for three item types: Main idea, inference, and supporting idea items. (TOEFL Research Report No. 44) Princeton, NJ: ETS.
Freedle, R. (1997). The relevance of multiple-choice reading test data in studying expository passage comprehension: The saga of a fifteen-year effort towards an experimental/correlational merger. Discourse Process, 23, 399-440.
Geva, E. (1983). Facilitating reading through flowcharting. Reading Research Quarterly, 18(4), 384-405.
Geva, E. (1992). The role of conjunctions in L2 text comprehension. TESOL Quarterly, 26(4), 731-747.
Gillet, J. W. & Richards, H. C. (1979). Reading comprehension test performance and hierarchical classification. Paper presented to the Educational Resources Information Center. University of Virginia. (ED 167 987).
Goodman, K. (1970). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. In H. Singer and R.B. Ruddell (Eds.) Thoretical models and processes of reading. (p. 497-508). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 375-406.
Grellet, F. (1981). Developing reading skills. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hales, M. (1972). Essentials of testing. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison- Wesley publishing Company.
Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman Group.
Harris, D. P. (1969). Testing English as a second language. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.
Henning, G. (1987). A guide to language testing: Development, evaluation, research. Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Huang, Chun-teng, Chen, Chiu-lan, Liao, Mei-lin, Wang, Chuan-som, & Chen, Kun-tien. (1999). English Reading Comprehension Proficiency Assessment Project. Taipei: CEEC.
Huang, Tsan-suei. (1994). A qualitative analysis of the JCEE English tests. Taipei: Crane.
Huang, Tzyh-lai. (1993). New horizons in English language teaching. Taipei: Crane.
Hughes, A. (1989). Testing for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
James, M. O. (1987). ESL reading pedagogy: Implication of schema－theoretical research. In J. Devine, O. L. Carrel, and D. E. Eskey (Eds.), Research in reading in English as a second language (p.177-188). Washington, D. C.: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language.
Jamieson, J., Jones, S., Kirsch, I., Mosenthal, P., & Taylor, C. (2000). TOEFL 2000 framework: A working paper. (TOEFL Research Report RM-00-3). Princeton, NJ: ETS.
Jeng, Heng-hsiung, Yang, I-li, Chen, Hsu-chi, Chen, Ling-hsia, Chen, Kun-tien, & Wu, Huei-chu. (1999). An experiment in designing English proficiency tests of two difficulty levels for the college entrance examination in Taiwan. Taipei: CEEC.
Johnson, B. E. (1994). The reading edge: Thirteen ways to build reading comprehension. Taipei: Bookman Books.
Johnson, P. (1982). Effects on reading comprehension of building background knowledge. TESTOL Quarterly, 16(4), 503-516.
Johnston, P. & Afflerbach, P. (1982). Centrality and reading comprehension test questions. Paper presented to U.S. Department of Education. (ED No. 227448).
Katz, S. (1995). The SAT reading task in question: Reply to Freedle and Kostin. Psychological Science, 6, 126-127.
Kintsch & Franzke, M. (1995). The role of background knowledge in the recall of a news story. In R. G. Lorch and E. J. O’Brien (Eds.), Sources of coherence in reading (p.321-333). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Kirsch, I. S. & Guthrie, J. T. (1980). Construct validity of functional reading tests. Journal of Educational Measurement, 17(2), 81-93.
Kirsch, I. S. & Mosenthal, P. B. (1990). Exploring document literacy: Variables underlying the performance of young adults. Reading Research Quarterly, 25(1), 5-30.
Kuo, S. Y. (1985). Psychological and educational measurement. Taipei: Ching Hua Publishing House.
Language Training & Testing Center. (1999). Research on the General English Proficiency Test: Pretest report on intermediate level. Taipei: The Language Training & Testing Center.
Lynch, B. K. & Hudson, T. (1991). EST Reading. In Marianne Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (p.216-232). Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.
Mackay, R. (1987). Teaching the information gathering skills. In M. H. Long and J. C. Richards (Eds.), Methodology in TESOL: A book of reading (p. 248-258). Boston, Mass: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Marshall, J. C. & Hales, L. W. (1971). Classroom test construction. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
McNamara, T. (2000). Language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McNeil J. D. (1992). Reading comprehension: New directions for classroom practice. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Meyer, B. F. & Freedle, R. O. (1984). Effects of discourse type on recall. American Educational Research Journal, 21(1), 121-143.
Mikulecky, B. S. (1990). A short course in teaching reading skills. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Mo, Chien-ching. (1987). A study of English reading comprehension and general guidelines for testing reading. Journal of National Chengchi University, 55, 173-206. Taipei: National Chengchi University.
Mo, Chien-ching. (1991). An extended topic chain: A paragraph development model for Chinese learners of English. Journal of National Chengchi University, 62, 285-309. Taipei: National Chengchi University.
Nevo, N. (1989). Test-taking strategies on a multiple-choice test of reading comprehension. Language Testing, 6, 199-215.
Nuttall, C. (1996). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. London: Heinemann.
Perfetti, C. A. (1997). Sentences, individual differences, and multiple texts: Three issues in text comprehension. Discourse Processes, 23, 337-355.
Perkins, K. (1992). The effect of passage topical structure types on ESL reading comprehension difficulty. Language Testing, 9, 163-172.
Perkins, K., Brutten, S. R., & Pohlmann, J. T. (1990). A Level —of question effect on ESL reading comprehension. Report presented to U.S. Department of Education. (ED No. 322 709).
Person, P. D. & Johnson, D. D. (1978). Teaching reading comprehension. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Phillips, J. K. (1984). Practical implications of recent research in reading. Foreign Language Annals, 17(4), 285-296.
Raygor, A. L. & Raygor R. D. (1985). Effective reading: Improving reading rates and comprehension. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Roller, C. M. (1990). The interaction between knowledge and structure variables in the processing of expository prose. Reading Research Quarterly, 25(2), 79-89.
Rost, D. H. (1993). Assessing the different components of reading comprehension: Fact or fiction. Language Testing, 10(1), 79-92.
Rumelhart, D. E. (1980). Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In R. J. Spiro, B. Bruce, & W. F. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension (p.33-58). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sax, G. (1997). Principles of educational and psychological measurement and evaluation. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Schedl, M. et al. (1996). An analysis of the dimensionality of TOEFL reading comprehension items. ( TOEFL Report 53). Princeton, NJ: ETS.
Shih, Yu-hwei. (1994). The impact of the joint college entrance examination on English teaching and learning in Taiwan. Studies in English Literature & Liguistics, 1994, p.53-84.
Spolsky, B. (1995). Measured words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Taylor, B. M. & Beach, R. W. (1984). The effects of text structure instruction on middle grade students’ comprehension and production of expository text. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(2), 134-146.
Teale, W. H. & Rowley, G. (1984). Standardized Testing and the teaching of reading: A practical guide with evaluations of reading tests commonly used in Australian schools. San Antonio: The University of Texas, Division of Education School of Social and Behavioral Sciences. (ED 291 769).
Tian, Shiau-ping. (2000). TOEFL reading comprehension: Strategies used by Taiwanese students with coaching-school training. Dissertation. Columbia University.
Tierney, R., Readence, J. E. & Dishner, E. K. (1985). Reading strategies and practices. Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Traxler, A. E. (1970). Values and limitations of standardized reading tests. In R. Farr (Ed.), Measurement and evaluation of reading (p.220-236). New York: Harcourt.
Wang, Y. F. (1998). Facilitating EFL reading by teaching text cohesive ties. The proceedings of the seventh international symposium on English teaching (p.855-866). Taipei: Crane Publishing Co.
Weir, C. J. (1990). Communicative language testing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Weir, C. J. (1997). The testing of reading in a second language. In C. Clapham and D. Corson (Eds.), Encyalepedia of language and education volumn 7: Language testing and assessment (p.39-49). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Williams, E. & Moran, C. (1989). Reading in a foreign language at intermediate and advanced levels with particular reference to English. Language Teaching, 22(4), 217-228.
Witte, P. L. (1985). A guidebook for teaching reading. Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Worthen, B. R. , White, K., Fan, X. & Sudweeks, R. R. (1999). Measurement and assessment in schools. London: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Wu, Huei-chu. (2000). An item analysis of the 2000 English Subject Ability Test. Taipei: CEEC.
Yu, G. K-H. (1995). New tendencies in reading proficiency tests: Implications from reading comprehension research. Paper presented at the Tenth English Conference on English Teaching and Learning in Taiwan, Republic of China.
Yu, Min-nin (1997). Educational measurement and evaluation: Achievement measurement and teaching evaluation. Taipei: Psychology Publisher.