時代的變化對文學的內容和形式有直接的影響，文學史的研究意義就在於解釋這些變化的意義。兩漢之際，政治變動劇烈，紀行兼言志之賦湧現，成為漢代辭賦史的一個特殊的現象。劉歆的〈遂初賦〉，在紀行的結構下，含藏了深刻的言志內容。馮衍晚年所寫的〈顯志賦〉，融言志之賦於紀行之中，以紀行為開端架構，而以述志為其重心。一方面在時代的潮流下，受劉歆〈遂初賦〉的影響，記載真實的旅程，大量羅列歷史典故；另一方面，卻展現了自己的特色，截取〈離騷〉、〈遠遊〉的虛構旅程的設計，把真實和虛幻的旅行結合為一體。這篇賦無論在形式和内容上都是辭賦史上的一個關鍵，本文擬追溯漢代紀行、言志之賦的沿革，以馮衍的〈顯志賦〉為中心，來展開與探索漢代世變與辭賦嬗變的軌跡。 Changes of time wield direct impact on the content and form of literature, and the significance of literary history lies in interpreting these changes. Due to the drastic political changes during the transition of the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties, fu on journeys and expressing one’s resolve comes into being and becomes a special phenomenon in the history of Han fu. Like Liu Xin’s “Suichufu”(fu on fulfilling my original resolve), Fen Yan’s “Xianzhifu” (fu on conveying my resolve) features the structure of a travelogue and focuses on voicing his resolve. Under the influence of “Suichufu” and the prevailing trend at that time, Fen enumerates a long series of historical allusions in it. He demonstrates his personal distinctiveness by applying the same technique of combining imaginary and practical traveling experiences as in Qu Yuan’s “Li sao” (Encountering Sorrow) and “Yuanyou” (Distant Roaming). Since both the content and the form of “Xianzhifu” are crucial in the history of the fu genre, this article attempts to trace the evolution of Han fu on journeys and expressing one’s resolve using Feng Yan’s “Xianzhifu” as an example, thus exploring the development of the fu and its relationship to historical change during the Han.
政大中文學報, 17, 133-160 Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature National Chengchi University