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    題名: 一九三三年的滿鐵改組案爭議
    其他題名: The Issue of Reorganizing the Southern Manchurian Railway Company﹙SMRC﹚in1993
    作者: 黃福慶
    Huang, Fu-ching
    關鍵詞: 滿鐵王國;滿鐵鐵道一元化;日滿議定書;奧村案;沼田多稼藏;二位一體制
    The kingdom of SMRC ﹙Southern Manchurian Railway Company﹚;The Synchronization of Manchurian Railway Company;The Japan-Manchukuo Agreement;Okumura;Numada Takazo;The Two-in-One System
    日期: 2001-05
    上傳時間: 2016-06-02 11:54:50 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 南滿洲鐵道株式會社(簡稱「滿鐵」)成立於1906年11月,至1945年8月因二次大戰結束而解體,在這四十年的歲月中,有風光的歷史,也有挫折的一面。早期受到日本政府的特別保護,在滿洲舉凡鐵道、港灣、煤礦、輕重工業等各行各業,無不插手經營,形成一個龐大的聯合企業公司,儼若一個「滿鐵王國」。縱然它的身份一再受到質疑,卻因有日本政府的支持,幾次的風浪皆能平安渡過。而且平心而論,它在日本開發滿蒙的過程中,的確扮演過很重要的角色。\r日本政府一向以「滿洲為日本的生命線」為口號向其國民宣導,鼓勵他們前往開發,滿鐵既負有特殊使命,站在開發滿洲的第一線,自然成為日本朝野上下關注的焦點。然而自九一八事變尤其是「滿洲國」建立後,情勢丕變,「滿鐵王國」在滿洲所扮演的角色,甚至其存在,開始成為日本各界尤其是軍方(指陸軍省及關東軍)檢討的課題,而滿鐵的改組就是其中心議題之一。因為關東軍在取得「滿洲國」的主導權後,進一步將滿鐵改組藉以取得其監督權是很自然的事。其實,日本國內的商工業界對滿鐵在滿洲的獨占行為,早已發出不平之鳴。尤其在滿洲的日本商工業界更因身歷其境,對滿鐵的老大作為,感受尤深。1932年3月間,奉天商工會議所就曾建議滿鐵改組,這一例行性集會的建議,只屬談論性質,所以當時並沒有引起社會各界太大的注意。及至1933年10月間,關東軍高級參謀沼田多稼藏中佐就有關滿鐵改組的關東軍方案對新聞記者發表談話後,才掀起軒然大波。蓋自九一八事變以後,關東軍不僅不歡迎日本國內財界引進滿洲,還積極採取「國家社會主義的統制經濟論」等措施,滿鐵當時既執滿洲經濟的牛耳,果真遭到解體,可以預見,日本國內企業界將失去投資管道,且對滿投資也將因軍方的干預而裹足不前。由於這些錯綜複雜的因素,滿鐵改組案曝光後立刻引起很大的反彈,立竿見影的是,滿鐵的股價暴跌,滿鐵公債不易銷售,開發滿蒙資金的籌措發生困難,種種負面的影響,不僅說明了滿鐵在滿洲經濟勢力之舉足輕重,也預兆了改組方案必然遭受阻力,但這並不証明就此即譜上休止符。\r自「滿洲國」成立後,關東軍儼然以日本在滿最高指導者自居,對想集滿洲軍、政、經濟等大權於一身的關東軍而言,滿鐵當然是他們的眼中釘。加上九一八事變後,日本幾乎被國際社會所孤立,當時日本急欲建立日滿經濟共同體,以突破孤立,因此建立一個統制滿洲經濟產業的方案,成為當務之急,滿鐵的改組也自然無可避免。
    The Japanese government has always been propagating the slogan “Manchuria is the lifeline of Japan”to its people, encouraging them to go there and develop the land. Being the forefront of developing Manchuria, the Southern Manchuria Railway Company﹙SMRC﹚, with its unique mission, therefore becomes the focus that everyone in Japan keeps an eye on. However, since the September Incident﹙also known as the Mukden Incident﹚, especially after the establishment of “Manchukuo,”the situation has changed drastically. The role of “Manchukuo“ in Manchuria, even its existence, becomes an issue provoking wide discussion in Japanese society and among the military. The ministry of the army and the Kanto Army argues especially vehemently. One of the central issues is the reorganization of the SMRC. Once the Kando Army dominates the “Manchukou,” it is only natural for them to intend to reorganize the SMRC for taking the power of supervision. In fact, the SMRC’s monopolization in Manchuria had already caused complaints and protests among Japanese domestic business industry. Domestic business representatives in Manchuria understand the best the arbitrariness of the SMRC, for they are all witnessed it. In March 1932, Fong-tien Industry and Business Congress Institute once suggested the reorganization of SMRC. The suggestion from the routine congress, merely as a casual conversation, did not cause too strong an attention in society at that time. It was until October 1993, when the Kanto Army senior staff officer Numada Takazo made a statement to the press about the position of the Army toward the reorganization of SMRC, that resulted in great disturbance. After the Mukden Incident, the Kanto Army not only showed unfriendly attitude toward Japanese domestic industry, but also aggressively put obstructive policies into practice, such as “control economy theory of national socialism”SMRC was then the overwhelming power of controlled economy in Manchuria. If SMRC indeed disintegrated, it was predictable that Japanese domestic business industry would lose the access to investment, and might take the wait and see attitude because of the army’s intervention. Owing to those complicated elements, as soon as the case of reorganization was exposed, it incurred great counterattack. The immediate impact was the plummet of SMRC’s stock value, and selling the SMRC bond became a difficult task, either. Moreover, the capital for developing Manchuria was also hindered. All the adverse reaction manifests SMRC’s irreplaceable economic power, and presages the inevitable obstacle on reorganizing. But the story has not ended. After the establishment of “Manchukuo,”the Kanto Army seems to consider themselves the highest commander in Manchuria. For them, who aimed to centralize the authority of military, government, and economy, the SMRC becomes the thorn in their shoes. Besides, Japan is almost isolated by the international society after the Mukden Incident. To break through this impasse, Japan was anxious to build a Japanese-Manchurian economic union. So, there was a vital urgency to set up a project controlling the economy and business in Manchuria. The reorganization of SMRC consequently becomes thus a logical necessity.
    關聯: 政治大學歷史學報, 18, 29-62
    The Journal of History
    資料類型: article
    顯示於類別:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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