本研究以社會資本理論的觀點，來考察慈濟功德會的組織運作，主要是因為社會資本理論體系已逐漸發展起來，並提供我們在探討公民社會形成的重要理論基礎。慈濟功德會在面對多元化的社會變遷中，如何透過組織決策的運作機制來展現民主化與制度化的精神？如何投入社區或公共事務的參與，進而提升組織的「公共性」？如何建構綿密的社區互動網絡，以及良善的社會道德規範，來增強社會信任？這些都是分析社會資本形成的關鍵性議題，也是本研究探討的重點所在。是以，本研究旨在透過對慈濟功德會之社會資本的深入考察，探討其組織決策機制、公共事務參與、社會道德規範與社區互動網絡等組織運作情形。本研究採「質化研究」的方法，透過文獻分析、深度訪談及參與觀察，來進行資料之蒐集與分析，研究結果聚焦於以下四個面向：（一）組織決策機制；（二）公共事務參與；（三）社會道德規範；（四）社區互動網絡；並藉著理論與實務的相互印證，來檢視個案對象所蘊含的研究意涵，俾作為公民社會中宗教組織運作與發展之借鑑。 The research investigated the operation of Buddhist Tzu-Chi Merits Society from viewpoint of theory of social capital because their system of social capital theory have been full-fledged and could provide us with an important basis for exploring the forming of civil society. Faced with changes of diversified society, how can it demonstrate the democratic and systematic spirits through operation mechanism in the process of policy-decision of organization? How can it enhance the publicness by participating in community and public affairs? How can it construct a fine and careful network of community interaction and good social norm of ethics to strengthen social confidence? All of them are key topics of the forming of social capital that we intend to analyze and the key points on which the research focuses. Therefore, through in-depth investigation of social capital of Buddhist Tzu-Chi Merits Society, the research aims to explore the argumentation of factors of development network of religious ethics and organizational inputs on one hand, and explores organizational operations including its mechanism in the process of policy-decision of organization, participation in public affairs, social norm of ethics and network of community interaction and discusses four cases of organizational outputs to show effects and meaning of achieving its aims by Tzu-Chi organizations. The results of research focused on four aspects: 1. mechanism in the process of policy-decision of organization; 2. participation in public affairs; 3. social norm of ethics; and 4. network of Community Interaction. The research also examined the meaning of targets of case studies in the research by means of mutual verifications of theory and practices that could be very good reference and lessons for other religious non-profit organizations in civil society on operation and development of organization.
中山人文社會期刊, 14(1),125-163 Dr. Sun Yat-sen Graduate Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies