計畫經濟時期，中國大陸城市基層管理體制以「單位制」為主，「街居制」為輔。1980年代之後，隨著市場經濟轉型與社會結構變遷，導致「單位制」式微，「街居制」亦面臨管理困境，進而促成「社區制」產生。在社區治理的趨勢下，各城市相繼湧現新興社區自治組織，其中又以「業主委員會」最引人矚目。1990年代以來，中國大陸城鎮住房制度改革推動了房屋產權私有化，「業主委員會」成為最重要的社區維權組織，使社區治理結構逐漸呈現以「業主委員會」、「居民委員會」與「物業管理公司」為主的三角權力結構。然而，業委會的出現是否意味著中國市民社會力量的崛起？抑或是國家基層政權的向下延伸？對此，本文以「國家主導論」、「市場轉型論」與「合法性機制」三項機制觀察業委會運作，繼而提出「產權結構」與「權力更迭」為影響業委會自主性的兩項關鍵因素，並將社區型態劃分為四類—「國家主導型」、「行政引導型」、「依賴—過渡型」與「居民治理型」，藉此更精確地分析中國大陸社區型態轉型與權力結構之互動。 Under the planned economy, the Chinese urban management was built on the administrative system which working units (Danwei regime) took dominant position while the “neighborhood committee” was the supplementary one. With transition to market economy and changes in social structure, the disadvantages of the traditional administrative management seems mounting. To solve the problem, the state promotes community reconstruction. According to this plan, community organizations are established and then affect the grassroots state power. The housing reform of 1990s gave birth to the owners’ committee which is an organization to protect house property. For that matter, the community governance is changing into a triangular structure with owners’ committee, residents’ committee, and estate-servicing company as key roles. Does the emergence of the owners’ committee mean the burgeoning of civil society in China? Or they are merely the agent of state at the grassroots level? Regard to this, this article claims that three mechanisms－state dominance, market transition and legitimacy－leads to the rise of owners’ committee and demonstrates that “property right” and “power recombination” are the key elements to influence the autonomy of owners’ committee and the diversity of community structure. According to these findings, this paper may shed new light on the change and development of community organizations in urban China.