English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  全文筆數/總筆數 : 75046/106105 (71%)
造訪人次 : 19439309      線上人數 : 438
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
搜尋範圍 查詢小技巧:
  • 您可在西文檢索詞彙前後加上"雙引號",以獲取較精準的檢索結果
  • 若欲以作者姓名搜尋,建議至進階搜尋限定作者欄位,可獲得較完整資料
  • 進階搜尋
    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/99603
    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/99603


    題名: 19世紀英格蘭公學校跑步運動的發展
    The Development of Running and the Great Public Schools in 19th Century England
    作者: 程奕嘉
    Cheng, I Chia
    貢獻者: 林美香
    程奕嘉
    Cheng, I Chia
    關鍵詞: 跑步運動
    公學校
    現代運動
    業餘精神
    英格蘭
    Running
    The Great Public Schools
    Modern Sports
    Amateurism
    England
    日期: 2016
    上傳時間: 2016-08-03 09:45:19 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 19世紀英格蘭社會,對於運動史研究來說是很重要的時期。本研究將從19世紀的英格蘭談起,藉由公學校在運動發展中的影響力,來討論與理解跑步運動在19世紀公學校內的發展脈絡以及現代化的過程為何?19世紀在有能力就讀公學校,還有劍橋、牛津大學等中上階級們的影響之下,促使了「現代運動」的形成。同時,這些在運動發展上握有權力的中上階級們,在運動發展的過程中,塑造出了「業餘精神」,藉此來強調運動的高尚和階級的優越性。本文將從19世紀初期討論到西元1908年倫敦奧運。從公學校早期具有娛樂和暴力性質的跑步運動談起,在19世紀中歷經校長改革和學生們投入後,跑步運動中娛樂與暴力性質越來越少,加入更多工業革命發展下所帶來的現代元素。19世紀後半葉,公學校內跑步運動發展逐漸成熟,討論規則制定的情況漸少,描述比賽舉辦情況漸多。在公學校外,許多田徑俱樂部和越野賽跑俱樂部在公學校或是大學校友們的支持下成立。1880年業餘田徑協會成立,統一各地俱樂部和規則紛亂的局面,負責掌管英格蘭地區有關田徑運動的一切事宜,這也是公學校內討論跑步運動規則情況減少的原因。1908年倫敦在畢業於公學校校友的牽線下舉辦奧運,並與美國在跑步賽場上因為「業餘精神」和規則發生了些紛爭。至此,我們可以看出19世紀英格蘭公學校跑步運動的發展狀況,以及了解公學校跑步運動發展與現代運動出現間,部份的互動關係和影響。
    The nineteenth cenry is an essential age for Sport history, especially in England. This research attempts to comprehend the revolutionary transformation of British sporting culture by studying running. During the Victorian era, running, as a sport category, includes hare and hounds, cross-country running, handicap, steeplechase and track events which is a little bit different from the modern Athletics. The research focuses on the public schools’ students, their relationship with athleticism, running sport and the society in the nineteenth-century England.
    As its main concern is the role of the public schools played in the the transformation of British sporting culture, the dissertation begins with the education system of the public schools and the running in the old times . Then, it turns to the transformation of athleticism and the renovation of running in the public schools by discussing what, why and how it happened? The third chapter moves to the modern running games held in the public schools, and the interaction between the public schools and the amateur clubs. The Amateur Athletic Association, established in 1880, played an important role in the history of running sports and had significant effects on Amateurism. Finally, the dissertation concludes with the 1908 London Summer Olympic to see the spread of public schools’ amateurism.
    參考文獻: 一、 史料
    (一) 報章雜誌
    1. “Cross Country Running,” Times (London, England). 14 Nov, 1898: 7. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Nov 2015.
    2. “Cross-Country Running,” Times (London, England). 10 Dec, 1897: 7. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Nov 2015.
    3. “Cross-Country Running,” Times (London, England). 21 Nov, 1898: 13. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Nov 2015.
    4. “Mr. Walter Rye. Antiquary and Athlete,” Times (London, England). 26 Feb, 1929: 21. The Times Digital Archive Web, 20 May 2016.
    5. “Sullivan’s Olympic Views,” The Sun (New York), 13 Jul, 1908: 6. The Chronicling America Historic American Newspapers, 20 Apr 2016.
    6. “The Olympic Game,” Times (London, England). 11 Jul, 1908: 18. The Times Digital Archive Web, 20 Apr 2016.
    7. “The Olympic Game,” Times (London, England). 15 Jul, 1908: 12. The Times Digital Archive Web, 20 Apr 2016.
    8. “The Olympic Game,” Times (London, England). 24 Jul, 1908: 6. The Times Digital Archive Web, 20 Apr 2016.
    9. “The Olympic Game,” Times (London, England). 27 Jul, 1908: 10. The Times Digital Archive Web, 20 Apr 2016.
    10. Editor. “The Proposed Testimonial to MR. W. G. GRACE,” Times (London, England). 17 June, 1895: 2. The Times Digital Archive Web, 17 Dec 2015.
    11. George J. Romanes, “Recreation,” Nineteenth Century, 6(1879): 402.
    12. H. E. Davies, et al. “Rugby School Runs,” Times (London, England). 22 Nov, 1892: 10. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Oct 2015.
    13. J.Percival, et al. “Runs at Rugby School,” Times (London, England). 25 Nov, 1892: 8. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Oct 2015.
    14. Lucas Collins, “School and College Life: Its Romance and Reality,” Blackwood’s Edinbrugh Magazine, 89(1861): 146.
    15. Montagu Manning, “The Death of a Rugby Scholar,” Times (London, England). 28 Nov, 1892: 8. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Oct 2015.
    16. R. W. Dale, “Amusements,” Good Words, 8(May 1, 1867): 332.
    17. W. C. Sidgwick, Rw. Lund, and Old Rugbeian, “Rugby School Runs,” Times (London, England). 24 Nov, 1892: 12. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Oct 2015.
    18. W. Guise Tucker, “Rugby School Runs,” Times (London, England). 23 Nov, 1892: 11. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Oct 2015.
    19. WM. S. Grignon, et al. “Rugby School Runs,” Times (London, England). 29 Nov, 1892: 7. The Times Digital Archive Web, 28 Oct 2015.
    (二) 書籍
    1. Airy, Reginald. Westminster, London: G. Bell and Sons, 1902.
    2. Arnold, Thomas. Thomas Arnold on Education: A Selection from His Writings, London: Cambridge University Press, 1970.
    3. Auden, John Ernes. Shrewbury School Register, Oswestry: Woodall, 1909.
    4. Benson, Roberte. Rugby School Hare and Hounds. Description of the Big-side Runs, Rugby: A.J. Lawrenc, 1894.
    5. Bradby, H. C. Rugby, London: G. Bell and Sons, 1900.
    6. Chapamn, George. A Treatise on Education, London: T. Cadell, 1784.
    7. Clutton-Brock, Arthur. Eton, London: G. Bell and Sons, 1900.
    8. Cook, Theodore Andrea. The Fourth Olympiad, Being the Official Report, the Olympic Games of 1908 Celebrated in London under the Patronage of His Most Gracious Majesty King Edward VII, London: The British Olympic Association, 1909.
    9. Darwin, Benard. British Sport and Games, London: Longmans Green, 1940.
    10. Denham, William Henry. A History of Rugby School, London: Duckworth, 1898.
    11. Gale, Frederick. Modern English Sport: Their Use and Their Abuse, London: S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1885.
    12. Graves, Charles L. Mr. Punch's History of Modern England Vol. III of IV 1874-1892, London: Cassell and Company Ltd, 1922.
    13. Great Britain. The statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 32&33 VICTORIA, 1868-9, London: George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode, 1869.
    14. Harrison, Henry. Public School Life: Rugby, London: I. Pitman, 1911.
    15. Hughes, Thomas. Tom Brown's Schooldays, London: J.M. Dent, 1952.
    16. Hughes, Thomas. Tom Brown's Schooldays, New York: T.Y. Crowell, 1890.
    17. Locke, John and introduced by Jeffrey Stern. Some Thoughts Concerning Education, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1995.
    18. Lucas, William. The Public Schools:Winchester--Westminster--Shrewsbury--Harrow--Rugby; Notes of Their History and Traditions, London: W. Blackwood and sons, 1893.
    19. Misson, Henri. Memoirs and Observations in his Travels over England, London, D. Browne, 1719.
    20. Nelson, James. An Essay on the Government of Children, London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1756.
    21. Richardson, P. Rugby School Hare and Hounds Description of the Big Side Runs, Rugby: A.J. Lawrence, 1883.
    22. Routledge, Edmund and Wood, J. G. Every Boy's Book: A Complete Encyclopaedia of Sports and Amusements, London: G. Routledge, 1868.
    23. Shearman, Montague. Athletics and Football, London: Longmans, Green and Co, 1887.
    24. Staunton, Howard. The Great Schools of England: An Account of the Foundation, Endowments, and Discipline of the Chief Seminaries of Learning in England; Including Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St. Paul's, Charter-House, Merchant Taylors', Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, etc, London: Sampson, Low, Son and Marston, 1865.
    25. Tod, A. H. Charterhouse, London: G. Bell and Sons, 1900.
    26. Trollope, Anthony. British Sports and Pastimes, London: Virtue, 1868.
    27. Various Authors, Great Public Schools, London: Edward Arnold, 1893.
    28. Warner, A. Robert Townsend. Winchester, London: G. Bell and Sons, 1900.
    29. Williams, John Fischer. Harrow, London: G. Bell and Sons, 1900.
    二、 專書
    1. Anderson, Nancy Fix. The Sporting Life: Victorian Sports and Games, Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2010.
    2. Baker, William. Sports in the Western World, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
    3. Bale, John and P. David Howe. The Four-minute Mile: Historical and Cultural Interpretations of a Sporting Barrie, London: Routledge, 2008.
    4. Bale, John. Roger Bannister and the Four-minute Mile, London: Routledge, 2004.
    5. Bale, John. Running Cultures: Racing in Time and Space, London: Routledge, 2004.
    6. Birley, Derek. Land of Sport and Glory: Sport and British Society, 1887-1910, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
    7. Birley, Derek. Playing the Game: Sport and British Society, 1910-45, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
    8. Birley, Derek. Sport and the Making of Britain, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993.
    9. Boyd, Kelly. Manliness and the Boys' Story Paper in Britain: A Cultural History 1855-1940, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2003.
    10. Card, Tim. Eton Renewed: A History from 1860 to the Present Day, London: Murray, 1994.
    11. Chitty, Susan. Playing the Game: A Biography of Sir Henry Newbolt, London: Quarter Books, 1997.
    12. Collins, Tony. Rugby League in Twentieth-Century Britain, London: Routledge, 2006.
    13. Collins, Tony. Rugby’s Great Split: Class, Culture and the Origins of Rugby League Football, London: Frank Cass, 1998.
    14. Day, Dave and Tegan Carpenter. A History of Sports Coaching in Britain: Overcoming Amateurism, London: Rouledge, 2015.
    15. de Symons Honey, John Raymond. Tom Brown's Univer: The Development of the Victorian Public School, London: Millington, 1977.
    16. Elias, Norbert. Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process, Oxford: Blackwell, 1986.
    17. Gotaas, Thor. Running: A Global History, London: Reaktion, 2009.
    18. Goulstone, John. A Brief History of Athletics: From Anglo-Saxons to Early Victorians,London: J. Goulstone, 2009.
    19. Goulstone, John. The First Running Grounds c1835-70, Bexleyheath: J. Goulstone, 1997.
    20. Goulstone, John. The First Running Tracks and Pedestrian Enclosures: Notes on the Growth of Organised Athletics in Early Victorian England, Bexleyheath: J. Goulstone, 1997.
    21. Guttmann, Allen. From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports, New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.
    22. Haley, Bruce. The Healthy Body and Victorian Culture, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1978.
    23. Hampton, Janie. London Olympics 1908 and 1948, Aylesbury: Shire Publication, 2011.
    24. Hargreaves, Jennifer. Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology of Women’s Sport, London: Routledge, 1993.
    25. Hargreaves, John. Sport, Power and Culture: A Social and Historical Analysis of Popular Sport in Britain, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1986.
    26. Hill, Jeffrey. Sport, Leisure and Culture in Twentieth-century Britain, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002.
    27. Hobsbawn, Eric. Worlds of Labour, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1984.
    28. Holt, Richard ed. Sport and the Working Class in Modern Britain, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
    29. Holt, Richard. Sport and The British: A Modern History, Oxford: Clarendon, 1989.
    30. Huggins, Mike. The Victorians and Sport, London: Hambledon and London, 2004.
    31. Jackson, Vanessa Furse. The Poetry of Henry Newbolt: Patriotism is Not Enough, Greensboro: Elt Press, 1994.
    32. Jenkins, Rebecca. The First London Olympics 1908, Croydon: Piatkus, 2012.
    33. Jones, Gareth Stedman. Language of Class, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
    34. Lawson, John and Harold Silver. A Social History of Education in England, London: Routledge, 2007.
    35. Lovesey, Peter and Tom McNab. The Guide to British Track and Field Literature, London: Athletic Arena, 1969.
    36. Lovesey, Peter. The Kings of Distance A Study of Five Great Runners, London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1968.
    37. Lovesey, Peter. The Official Centenary History of the Amateur Athletic Association, Enfield: Guinnes Superlatives, 1979.
    38. Lowerson, John. Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870-1914, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993.
    39. Malcolmson, Robert. Popular Recreation in English Society 1700-1850, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.
    40. Mandell, Richard. Sport, A Cultural History, New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.
    41. Mangan, J.A. and Callum C. McKenzie. Militarism Hunting Imperialism Bloodong the Martial Male, London: Routledge, 2010.
    42. Mangan, J.A. Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School: The Emergence and Consolidation of an Educational Ideology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
    43. Mangan, J.A. The Games Ethic and Imperialism: Aspects of Diffusion of an Ideal, Harmondsworth: Viking, 1987.
    44. McDevitt, Patrick F. May the Best Man Win: Sport Masculinity and Nationalism in Great Britain and the Empire, 1880-1935, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2004.
    45. McIntosh, Peter. Physical Education in England since 1800, London: Bell, 1952.
    46. McIntosh, Peter. Sport in Society, London: C.A. Watts, 1963.
    47. McKibbin, Ross. Classes and Culture: England 1918-1951, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    48. Newsome, David. Godliness and Good Learning, London: Murray, 1961.
    49. Quercetani, R.L. A World History of Track and Field Athletics 1864-1964, London: Oxford University Press, 1964.
    50. Sanderson, Michael. Educational Opportunity and Social Change in England, London: Faber, 1987.
    51. Sears, Edward. Running Through the Ages, Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2001.
    52. Shrosbree, Colin. Public Schools and Private Education: The Clarendon Commission, 1861-64, and the Public Schools Acts, Mancheste: Manchester University Press, 1988.
    53. Simon, Brian and Ian Bradley. The Victorian Public School Studies in the Development of an Education Institute, Gill and Macmillan, 1975.
    54. Steinbach, Susie L. Understanding the Victorians: Politics, Culture, and Society in Nineteenth-Century Britain, London: Routledge, 2012.
    55. Taylor, Matthew. Association Game: A Hisotry of British Football, Harlow: Pearson, 2008.
    56. Tosh, John. Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Essays on Gender, Family and Empire, Harlow: Pearson, 2005.
    57. Vance, Norman. The Sinews of the Spirit: the Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
    58. Vertinsky, Patricia. The Eternally Wounded Woman: Women, Doctors, and Exercise in the Late Nineteenth Century, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
    59. Wiener, Martin. English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit, 1850-1980, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
    60. 克爾•瓦丁頓(Keir Waddington)著,李尚仁譯,《歐洲醫療五百年 卷一 醫療與常民》,台北:左岸文化,2014。
    61. 麥可•李維琳史密斯(Michael Llewellyn Smith)著,吳俊宏譯,《奧運•雅典•1896》,台北:麥田出版,2004。
    62. 湯尼•奇拉多(Tony Schirato)著,何哲欣譯,《運動的文化分析》,台北:韋伯文化,2009。
    63. 赫伊津赫(Johan Huizinga)著,成窮譯,《遊戲人》,新北市:康德出版,2013。
    三、 論文集論文
    1. Arlott, John. “Sport,” in Simon Nowell-Smith, ed. Edwardian England 1901-1914, London: Oxfoed Up, 1964.
    2. Cain, P. J. and A. G. Hopkins, “Gentlemanly Capitalism,” in Kelly Boyd and Rohan McWillams, eds. The Victorian Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2007.
    3. Cunningham, Hugh. “Leisure and Culture,” in F.M.L. Thompson, ed. The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1940 V2, People and Their Environment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
    4. Day, Dave. “Jerry Jim's Training Stable in Early Victorian Preston,” in Dave Day, ed. Pedestrianism, Manchester: MMU Sport and Leisure History Group, 2014.
    5. Foyster, Elizabeth. “Boys will be Boys? Manhood and Aggression, 1660-1800,” in Tim Hitchcock and Michèle Cohen, eds. English Masculinities, 1660-1800, London: Longman, 1999.
    6. Garnett, Jane. “Religious and Intellectual Life,” in Colin Matthew, ed. The Nineteenth Century The British Isles: 1815-1901, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    7. Hewitt, Martin. “Introduction: Victorian Milestones,” in Martin Hewitt, ed. The Victorian World, London: Routledge, 2012.
    8. Holt, Richard. “Football and the Urban Way of Life in Nineteenth-Century Britain,” in J.A. Mangan, ed. Pleasure, Profit, Proselytism: British Culture and Sport at Home and Abroad, 1700-1914, London: Frank Cass, 1988.
    9. Huggins, Mike. “Cartoons and Comic Periodicals, 1841-1901: A Satirical Sociology of Victorian Sporting Life,” in Mike Huggins and J.A. Mangan, eds. Disreputable Pleasures Less Virtous Victorians at Play, London: Frank Cass, 2004.
    10. Huggins, Mike. “Second-Class Citizens? English Middle-Class Culture and Cport, 1850-1910: A Reconsideration,” in J. A. Mangan, ed. A Sport Loving Society: Victorian and Edwardian middle-class England at Play, London: Routledge, 2006.
    11. James, Gary. “The Sporting Broads A Family's Journey from Pedestrianism to Football,” in Dave Day, ed. Pedestrianism, Manchester: MMU Sport and Leisure History Group, 2014.
    12. Johnes, Martin. “Sport history in Great Britain,” in Steven W. Pope and John R. Nauright, eds. Routledge Companion to Sports History, London: Routledge, 2010.
    13. Mangan, J. A. and Callum McKenzie. “The Other Side of the coin, Victorian masculinity, field sports and English elite education,” in J. A. Mangan, ed. A Sport Loving Society: Victorian and Edwardian middle-class England at Play, London: Routledge, 2006.
    14. Mangan, J. A. and Colm Hickey. “Athleticism in the Service of the Proletariat: Preparation for the English Elementary School and the Extension of Middle-class Manliness,” in J. A. Mangan, ed. A Sport Loving Society: Victorian and Edwardian middle-class England at Play, London: Routledge, 2006.
    15. Mangan, J.A. “Prologue Britain's Chief Spiritual Export Imperial Sport as Moral Metaphor Political Symbol and Cultural Bond,” in J.A. Mangan, ed. The Cultural Bond Sport Empires Society, London: Frank Cass, 1992.
    16. Pendleton, David. “The Pub and Pedestrianism in Victorian Bradford,” in Dave Day, ed. Pedestrianism, Manchester: MMU Sport and Leisure History Group, 2014.
    17. Sutherland, Gillian. “Education,” in F.M.L. Thompson, ed. The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1940 V3, Social Agencies and Institutions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
    18. Tosh, John. “The Old Adam and the New Man: Emerging Themes in the History of English Masculinities, 1750-1850,” in Tim Hitchcock and Michèle Cohen, eds. English Masculinities, 1660-1800, London: Longman, 1999.
    19. Williams, Jack. “Recreational Cricket in the Bolton Area between the Wars,” in Richard Holt, ed. Sport and the Working Class in Modern Britain, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
    20. Hall, Donald E. “Muscular Christianity: reading and writing the male social body,” in Donald E, Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age, Cambridge: Cambridge Universiry Press, 1994.
    21. Allen, Dennis W. “Young England: muscular Christianity and the politics of the body in Tom Brown’s Schooldays,” in Donald E, Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age, Cambridge: Cambridge Universiry Press, 1994.
    四、 期刊論文
    1. Day, Dave. “Massaging the Amateur Ethos: British Professional Trainers at the 1912 Olympic Games,” Sport in History, 32.2(2012): 157-182.
    2. Hardy, Stephan and Alan Ingham. “Games, Structure and Agency: Historians on the American Play Movement,” Journal of Social History, 17.2(1983): 285-301.
    3. Hill, Jeffrey. “‘I’ll Run Him’: Alf Tupper, Social Class and British Amateurism,” Sport in History, 26.3(2006): 505-519.
    4. Holt, Richard. “The Amateur Body and the Middle class Man Work Health and Style in Victorian Britain,” Sport in History, 26.3(2006): 352-369.
    5. Howard, Michael. “Empire, Race and War-in Pre-1914 Britain,” History Today, 31(1981): 4-11.
    6. Johnes, Martin. “Putting the History into Sport On Sport History and Sports Studies in the UK,” Journal of Sport History, 31.2(2004): 145-160.
    7. Lucas, John A. “Victorian ‘Muscular Christianity’ prologue to the Olympic Games philosophy,” Olympic Review, 99-100(1975): 456-460.
    8. McAllister, Annemarie and Andrew Hobbs. “Introduction,” The International Journal of TheRegional and Local Studies, 5.1(2009): 5-15.
    9. McIntire, Matthew. “National Status, The 1908 Olympic Games and The English Press,” Media History, 15.3(2009): 271-286.
    10. Sterngass, Jon. “Cheating, Gender Roles, and the Nineteenth-Century Croquet Craze,” Journal of Sport History, 25.3(1998): 398-418.
    11. Watson, Nick J., Stuart Weir and Stephen Friend. “The Development of Muscular Christianity in Victorian Britain and Beyond,” Journal of Religion and Society, 7(2005): 1-21.
    12. 湯志傑,〈體育與運動之間:從迥異於西方「國家市民社會」二分傳統的發展軌跡談運動在臺灣的現況〉,《思與言》,47.1(2009): 1-126。
    五、 學位論文
    1. Carpenter, Tegan Laura. “Uneasy Bedfellows: Amateurism and Coaching Traditions in Twentieth Century British Sport,” Manchester: Ph. D. dissertation, Manchester Metropolitan University, 2012.
    2. Hogg, Robert Paul. “Men and Manliness on the Frontier: Queensland and British Columbia in the Mid-Nineteenth Century,” Queensland: Ph. D. dissertation, University of Queensland, 2007.
    3. 陳复嘉,〈德‧顧拜旦(1863-1937)與奧運復興運動〉,台北:國立政治大學歷史學系研究所碩士論文,2007。
    4. 馮奕達,〈英格蘭19世紀中晚期足球形象的演進〉,台北:國立政治大學歷史研究所碩士論文,2013。
    六、 網路資源
    1. "The Olympic Summer Games Factsheet," International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012. http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reference_documents_Factsheets/The_Olympic_Summer_Games.pdf 擷取時間:2016年4月21日。
    2. “Declaration of Sports”, October 18, 1633. See Hist. of Engl. vii. 318-324.
    http://www.constitution.org/eng/conpur017.htm 擷取時間:2015年4月20日。
    3. 〈退燒的跑步運動──台灣賽事統計學〉
    http://www.don1don.com/archives/76235/%E9%80%80%E7%87%92%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%91%E6%AD%A5%E9%81%8B%E5%8B%95%E2%94%80%E2%94%80%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E8%B3%BD%E4%BA%8B%E7%B5%B1%E8%A8%88%E5%AD%B8 擷取時間:105年6月11日。
    4. 〈馬拉松「蛋塔熱潮」退燒 有影嘸?〉
    http://www.sportsnote.com.tw/running/view_article.aspx/view_article.aspx?id=35945a34-a07b-4fe0-8e16-0cc430f7248b 擷取時間:105年2月1日。
    5. 「獨立特派員」「全民瘋路跑」攝《瘋路跑》《女力馬拉松》
    http://pnn.pts.org.tw/main/2014/02/13/%E3%80%90%E7%8D%A8%E7%AB%8B%E7%89%B9%E6%B4%BE%E5%93%A1%E3%80%91%E5%85%A8%E6%B0%91%E7%98%8B%E8%B7%AF%E8%B7%91/ 擷取時間:105年2月1日。
    6. 1908倫敦奧運參賽選手統計表。
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1908_Summer_Olympics 擷取時間:2016年4月22日。
    7. 杜蘭多•皮耶特里通過終點的瞬間(Dorando Pietri of Italy, on the verge of collapse, is helped across the finish line in the Marathon event of the Olympic Games in London, 24th July 1908. He was subsequently disqualified and the title was given to John Hayes of the USA)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dorando_Pietri_1908.jpg 擷取時間;2016年5月29日。
    8. 溫德姆•豪斯威爾重賽日通過終點(Wyndham Halswelle in the final of the 400 metre race at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wyndham_Halswelle.jpg 擷取時間;2016年5月29日。
    9. “Sport”, Oxford English Dictionary.
    http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/187476?rskey=M6YOv0&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid.
    擷取時間:2014年5月1日。
    10. “Vitaï Lampada”(The Torch of Life)
    http://exhibits.lib.byu.edu/wwi/influences/vitai.html 擷取時間:2016年6月7日。
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    歷史學系
    102153003
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0102153003
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[歷史學系] 學位論文

    文件中的檔案:

    檔案 大小格式瀏覽次數
    300301.pdf7278KbAdobe PDF364檢視/開啟


    在政大典藏中所有的資料項目都受到原著作權保護.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - 回饋